The Antibody Basic
Heck is an Antibody? - Antibody molecules are wonderful
things. These molecules are made of protein - meaning - the
molecule is a bunch of different individual amino acids hooked
together in a row (a polymer of amino acids). Each antibody
molecule has two different polymers hooked together - one of
these amino acid polymers is known as the Heavy chain and the
other one is known as the Light chain. Guess why?
Antibody Structure - Antibodies are immune system-related
proteins called immunoglobulins. Each antibody consists of four
polypeptides– two heavy chains and two light chains joined to
form a "Y" shaped molecule.
Mike's Immunoglobulin Structure/Function Home Page
webpages on immunoglobulin structure and function have been
prepared by Mike Clark, PhD, Cambridge University, Cambridge UK.
The pages here stem from my own academic teaching and research
interests in immunoglobulin structure and function. My intention
is to continue to develop them as a resource not only for my own
use but also as a reference source for students and researchers
with a similar interest in immunoglobulins. However you should
be aware that I exercise my full right to copyright over the
material that I have produced.
Antibody Recognition of Antigen
- The staggeringly large repertoire of antibodies with different
antigen-binding specificity is the basis for the immune system's
ability to recognize virtually all foreign antigens.
An Introduction to Immunoglobulin Structure By David
displays molecules in the left part of the screen, and text that
addresses structure-function relationships of the molecules in
the right part (below). Use the scrollbar to the right to scroll
through the text of this exhibit.
Making and Using Antibodies - Scope
and objective. Biological scientists have used antibodies for
many years to study proteins; but, as is the case with protein
purification and recombinant DNA technology, the ways antibodies
are produced and used has led to an increasingly powerful
technology. The purpose of this section is to discuss the way
these antibodies are produced and how they can be used.
Storage and Handling (Hevner Laboratory, University
of Washington School of Medicine).
Hints for the storage of Antibodies - Storage of lyophilized antibodies: All our products are shipped
lyophilized (freeze-dried). Unlabeled antibodies are stable
without loss of quality at ambient temperatures for several
weeks or even a few months. They can be stored at 4°C for
Antibody Storage (Pacific Immunology Corporation)
- Because antibodies have evolved to retain activity in a wide
range of biological conditions, storage is relatively
straightforward. In comparison to other purified proteins,
buffers rarely require the use of supplements such as glycerol.
However, because there is a risk of contamination from bacteria,
the addition of an antimicrobial agent such as sodium azide is
Antibody Storage (ProteinChemist) -
Antibodies, like most proteins, do not like to be freeze-thawed.
Avoid repetitive freezing of your solution. The best way to
store your antibody is to keep a high protein concentration (>1
mg/ml), add some protease inhibitors, and aliquot it for use.
Then freeze the aliquots and keep just one around for day to day
use at four degrees C.
Monoclonal antibody storage conditions,
and concentration effects on immunohistochemical specificity
- Monoclonal antibodies against a 24,000 dalton intracellular
estrogen-regulated protein in human breast cancer cells were
used to study storage conditions and the effects of monoclonal
antibody concentrations on immunohistochemical antigen
Antibody Storage (ABR - Affinity BioReagents) - Avoid
repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Antibodies can be adversely
effected by freeze/thaw cycles. It is usually preferable to
store antibodies for a few days at 4o C rather than
expose them to multiple freeze/thaw cycles.