Stress Markers







1,N(6) –ethenodeoxyadenosine



  • an effective antibody that can specifically recognize oxidized alpha1-AT, a marker of oxidative stress. PMID: 11814467


  • a marker of nitrosative stress. PMID: 16364162

  • a more sensitive marker for oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration than glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthase in spheroid cell cultures of Lewis rats. PMID: 11897084

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)/4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)

5-aminosalicylic acid

  • hydroxylation of 5-aminosalicylic acid is a potential specific probe for in vivo oxidative stress. PMID: 11235916


  • a marker of oxidative stress in rat kidney induced by paraquat. PMID: 10993486

8-epimer of prostaglandin F(2alpha)

  • a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, is decreased in the nipple aspirate fluid of women with breast cancer. PMID: 17266038

8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)

  • a marker of oxidative stress, is elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID: 16517503


  • produced in vivo through free radical-catalysed peroxidation of arachidonic acid and reflects oxidative stress. PMID: 16449367

  • a marker of oxidative stress, might serve as an index of disease activity. PMID: 15006961, PMID: 14555570

  • a marker of oxidative stress in pregnant women diagnosed with IUGR. PMID: 14669408

8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine)

  • an oxidative stress marker. PMID: 16768167, PMID: 15895849, PMID: 15881229

  • a useful biomarker for assessing periodontal status accurately, and for evaluating the efficacy of periodontal treatment. PMID: 15943765

  • a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics. PMID: 14687888

  • the competitive ELISA for 8-OHdG and its analogs appears to be a simple method for quantifying the extent of oxidative stress and may have potential for identifying cancer risk. PMID: 12867278

  • a marker of oxidative stress in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID: 11054349

  • first reported in 1984 as a major form of oxidative DNA damage product by heated sugar, Fenton-type reagents and X-irradiation in vitro. PMID: 9439711

8-OH-Gua (8-hydroxyguanine)

  • a better marker of oxidative stress than 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in relation to the life spans of various species. PMID: 16771688

8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG)


AGEs (advanced glycation end products)

  • not only are markers of oxidative stress but are also active participants in cell signaling by activation of glial cells to produce superoxide and nitric oxide. PMID: 9749578


AOPP (advanced oxidation products )

  • may be used as a marker of oxidative stress and as a prognostic factor for severe forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID: 16170393

  • a reliable marker to estimate the degree of oxidant-mediated protein damage in uremic patients and to predict the potential efficacy of therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing such an oxidative stress. PMID: 8731095

AVP (arginine vasopressin)

  • a marker for foetal stress in rhesus erythroblastosis. PMID: 3090813

Bilirubin (Bil)

  • Plasma Bil concentrations might serve as a useful marker of oxidative stress in hemorrhagic stroke patients. PMID: 14753445

Chromogranin-A (CgA)

CO III (cytochrome c oxidase subunit III)


  • a marker for suicidality in depressed males exposed to low stress. PMID: 17376150

C-reactive protein (CRP)

F2 isoprostanes


  • a molecular marker of osmotic stress in Glycine max/Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodule. PMID: 16913873

GGT (gamma glutamyltransferase)

  • serum GGT might be useful in studying oxidative stress-related issues in both epidemiological and clinical settings. PMID: 15346644

  • serum GGT level within its normal range may be an early marker of oxidative stress. PMID: 15336318

GPX (glutathione peroxidase)

GSH (reduced glutathione)

GST (glutathione S transferase)

GST-pi (Glutathione-S-transferase pi)

  • a phase II detoxifying enzyme involved in drug metabolization by human keratinocytes, is a marker of putative oxidative stress in keratinocytes.  PMID: 17139195

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

  • may be a marker of systemic oxidative stress in normotensive and preeclamptic term pregnancies. PMID: 15904911


  • gene expression may represent a molecular marker of oxidative stress that could ultimately be used to elucidate the temporal relationships between oxidative stress, genomic instability and the development of lung cancer. PMID: 9657375

HO-1 (heme-oxygenase-1)

HODE (total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid)

HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70)

  • environmental stress marker. PMID: 16841884

  • a stress marker of sea urchin coelomocytes in short term cultures. PMID: 12064441

  • expression may not be a mere marker of biological stress but may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. PMID: 9930361

HSP72 (Heat Shock Protein 72)


Isoprostane F2alpha-VI

  • a new marker of oxidative stress, increases following light damage to the mouse retina. PMID: 17327824

K20 Ser(13) (Keratin 20 serine 13 phosphorylation)

  • a highly dynamic protein kinase C-related phosphorylation site that is induced during apoptosis and tissue injury, is a stress and intestinal goblet cell marker. PMID: 16608857

LDL-cholesterol (LDL)

  • a factor implicated in the development of inflammation and oxidative-stress associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID: 17380301


  • a marker of training stress in highly trained male rowers. PMID: 12905045

Lp-PLA(2) (Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2))


  • salivary lysozyme concentrations are sensitive to psychological stress and could be utilized as a potential marker in studies looking at the effects of stress on immunity. PMID: 16250737

Malondialdehyde (MDA)

  • a marker of oxidative stress in the healthy Thai elderly. PMID: 17392072

  • toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. PMID: 16054557

  • can be used as a reliable biomarker for cellular oxidative stress in human hepatoma HepG2. PMID: 15113537

Myeloperoxidase (MPO)

  • a microbicidal and reactive species-generating enzyme, is a marker of hemodialysis biocompatibility and oxidative stress. PMID: 16377383

  • may serve as a reliable marker of the degree of oxidative stress induced using dialysis membranes of different biocompatibilities. PMID: 15814542


  • a pyrazinopyrimidine compound, is produced by macrophages after induction by interferon gamma (IFN-g) and serves as a marker of cellular immune system activation followed by oxidative stress. PMID: 17301373

  • an early marker of surgical stress and hypoxic reperfusion damage during liver surgery. PMID: 12241010

N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)

  • the major product of oxidative degradation of glycated proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, represents an integrative biomarker for oxidative stress. PMID: 10381276

N-linoleoyl tyrosine (N-LT)

  • a tool for the characterization of cellular oxidative stress in macrophages. PMID: 16298758

p38 MAPk


  • staining is common and best explained as an ischaemic stress response due to poor oxygenation, vasculitis and inflammation rather than as a marker of a precancerous lesion in LS. PMID: 16430473

PCOOH (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide)

  • a new marker of alcohol consumption as well as oxidative stress in alcoholic patients. PMID: 14754913


  • an AGE moiety taken as a surrogate marker of carbonyl stress. PMID: 15168382

Phospholipid plasmalogen

PP1 (protein phosphatase 1)

  • monitoring PP1 isoform expression could constitute a useful diagnostic tool for cellular stress, possibly even neurodegeneration, is a marker for cellular stress. PMID: 15113600

rpoS promoter


  • the psychological effect of driving-induced stress, a condition that cannot be easily detected or recognized by a subjective evaluation, is quickly quantified using sAMY. PMID: 17408059

SIgA (Secretory immunoglobulin A)

  • a useful marker of the severity of stresses encountered during stressful training. PMID: 12498549

  • a potential marker of stress in the human and the dog, is also a marker of social stress in rats. PMID: 8904802

SOD (superoxide dismutase)

TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances)

  • a valuable marker of oxidative stress in diabetic mothers and their infants during delivery. PMID: 15588143



  • a marker of stress to motor nervous systems in fatal injury. PMID: 15847823

Ubiquinol/Ubiquinone ratio

  • a sensitive marker of oxidative stress, and an altered ubiquinol/ubiquinone ratio is the first sign of lipoprotein exposure to oxidative stress. PMID: 9055345

Other Stress Markers

  • Hair cortisol is influenced by days of ventilation in NICU term infants. This is a potentially valid outcome for chronic neonatal stress in these infants and warrants further investigation. PMID: 17356304

  • Protein carbonyl groups are a well known marker of oxidative stress in organism. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismuthase (SOD) are the most important components of enzymatic antioxidant barrier in humans. PMID: 17317916

  • Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations. PMID: 17037967

  • Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women. PMID: 16949402

  • SOC is a potential marker of an individual's social stress adaptive capacity, which is predictive of mortality. PMID: 16880025

  • Salivary cortisol is a biological marker of stress. PMID: 15273436

  • Decreased cardiac mNADP+-ICDH activity, which is attributed at least in part to HNE adduct formation, appears to be a relevant early and persistent marker of mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID: 15271667

  • Methodological guidelines for the use of salivary cortisol as biological marker of stress. PMID: 12870390

  • Urinary hydrogen peroxide may be a marker of oxidative stress in malignancies. PMID: 12867293

  • urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane may be a marker of morbidity as well as oxidative stress in patients with CHF. PMID: 12860861

  • Change in mitochondrial membrane potential in peripheral blood lymphocytes, especially in natural killer cells, is a possible marker for surgical stress on the immune system. PMID: 12732987

  • Breath alkanes as a marker of oxidative stress in different clinical conditions. PMID: 10802218

  • Insulin resistance: a marker of surgical stress. PMID: 10453333

  • Increased levels of exhaled CO may reflect induction of HO-1 and oxidative stress in bronchiectasis. PMID: 10193374

  • Protein-bound acrolein is a novel marker of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 9930749

  • disturbance in homocysteine metabolism may be related to enhanced oxidative stress. PMID: 9352241

  • the ratio of ubiquinol to ubiquinone has been suggested as a good marker of oxidative stress. PMID: 9234900, PMID: 9266509

  • Salicylate hydroxylation as an early marker of in vivo oxidative stress in diabetic patients. PMID: 1459481

  • anticardiolipin antibodies and their subtypes may be stress-induced markers and fluctuations in levels may correlate with periods of physiologic stress. PMID: 15288369