Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Markers




Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Initial treatment is surgery. It is notoriously resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, although some cases respond to immunotherapy.





  • the expression level of CA9 gene in conventional RCC is related to metastasis. CA9 may be a potential marker for the prediction of early metastasis after nephrectomy and to guide post-operative follow-up and treatment. PMID: 17390110


  • a useful molecular marker to detect the circulating cancer cells disseminated from conventional RCC. PMID: 15816561

  • a new prognostic marker for renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 14665853

CD10 and RCC

  • are often expressed by clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and they may be useful markers to suggest a renal origin of carcinomas. PMID: 16749584


  • Higher levels in the renal vein, its positive correlation with tumor size and volume suggest that ferritin is expressed by RCC. Initial peripheral serum values of ferritin can be indicative of disease status and also be a prognosticator of survival. PMID: 10436426

  • may be a useful serum marker for monitoring patients with RCC. PMID: 7855968

  • a tumor marker expressed by renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 8529738

  • serum ferritin may be a useful tumor marker for renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 2033679

FGF (fibroblast growth factor)

  • serum basic FGF can be useful in the diagnosis, and in evaluating the prognosis, of patients with renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 7730142

GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase)

  • Serum gamma glutamyl-transferase is a sensitive but unspecific marker of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 17470155

HIG2 (Hypoxia-inducible protein 2)

  • a novel diagnostic marker for renal cell carcinoma and potential target for molecular therapy. PMID: 15930302

hKIM-1 (Human kidney injury molecule-1)

  • the cleaved ectodomain of hKIM-1 can be detected in the urine of patients with RCC and may serve as a new biomarker for early detection of RCC. PMID: 15744000

  • a useful immunohistochemical marker for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma and ovarian clear cell carcinoma. PMID: 17325478

IAP (immunosuppressive acidic protein)

  • serum IAP may serve as a tumor marker in patients with renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 1915542


  • plays a different role from E-cadherin or cadherin-6 in RCC and may be associated with the aggressiveness and malignant potential of RCC. PMID: 16596183

Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase

NSE (Neuron specific enolase)

  • serum NSE may be considered as a useful marker in the evaluation and surveillance of RCC. PMID: 8836790

OPN (plasma osteopontin)

  • high plasma OPN levels are associated with distant metastases and poor survival in RCC patients. PMID: 17479289




  • involvement of PECAM-1 in the process of leukocyte migration and a potential role as a prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 8604238

RCC-Ma (Renal cell carcinoma marker)

  • is specific for cutaneous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 17448192

  • an excellent marker for primary RCC, which should facilitate its diagnosis in a small biopsy, and may also facilitate the differential diagnosis between oncocytoma and other types of RCC when they are composed mostly of eosinophilic cells. PMID: 11717537


  • a powerful marker to differentiate chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from renal oncocytoma. PMID: 17394501

TPS (Tissue polypeptide specific antigen)

  • may have a potential clinical role as a valuable tumor marker for RCC, especially in advanced diseases and follow-up therapy response. PMID: 12530023

Tu M2-PK

  • might be the first tumor marker which could be an excellent complementation of the diagnostic program for renal carcinoma. PMID: 10470201

  • would appear to be a useful marker for RCC detection and follow-up. PMID: 10470199


  • a 95-kd F-actin bundling and severing protein, is restricted in animal tissues to epithelial cells with a brush border, may be a grading marker that deserves further study in renal carcinoma. PMID: 3740217

Other Renal Cell Carcinoma Markers

  • the serum iron level may be used as a useful tumor marker in staging and follow-up of renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 2007419

  • serum iron is a useful, inexpensive tumour marker in selected patients with renal carcinoma. PMID: 3801817