Ovarian Cancer (Carcinoma) Markers




Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries).




alpha 1 AT

  • a useful tumor marker in diagnosing ovarian cancer (OC). PMID: 2472494

Alphav integrin

  • a novel prognostic marker in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 11751504

alpha(v)beta(6) Integrin

  • associated with epithelial ovarian cancer and that a gradual increase in the expression of the molecule may be a correlative index of the progression of this disease. PMID: 12364570


  • may be considered as a novel chemoresistance marker and that inhibitor(s) of ATP7B might be useful, in patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID: 12216079

B2M (Beta-2-Microglobulin)

  • combination of b2m and CA-125 tumormarkers seems to be a suitable tool for follow-up ovarian cancer patients under and after treatment. PMID: 1585745

beta III Tubulin

  • Assessment of beta III tubulin could be useful to identify poor prognosis ovarian cancer patients candidates to more aggressive and/or targeted therapy. PMID: 16675570


  • is of clinical value as a new tumor marker for ovarian cancers, including mucinous tumors. PMID: 1737381

CA 72-4

  • measurement of CA 72-4 be combined with measurement of CA 125, so as to provide a better sensitivity and specificity in monitoring an ovarian cancer. PMID: 2232183

CA125 (tumor marker Cancer Antigen 125)

  • currently widely applied in the management of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID: 12088336

  • though not ovarian cancer specific, is widely used for the evaluation of suspected and under-treated ovarian cancer. PMID: 15668638, PMID: 16126266

  • The combination of FDG-PET and CA125 titer is useful for the accurate detection of recurrence for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 16515575

  • a mucin commonly employed as a diagnostic marker for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 12734200

  • A rise in CA 125 during or after treatment, however, is almost always associated with progression of the disease (ovarian cancer). PMID: 9477746

  • a glycoprotein and a commonly used tumor marker in ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 16724349

  • useful to follow-up of patients whose ovarian carcinoma had already been diagnosed and suffered surgery procedures followed for chemotherapy. PMID: 8731596

  • the most sensitive marker for epithelial ovarian cancer, but the concomitant measurement of TATI could be of benefit in both differential diagnosis of adnexal masses and monitoring of response of epithelial ovarian cancer to treatment. PMID: 1780685

  • determination of serum CA 125 should be mandatory in the follow-up investigation of women with epithelial ovarian carcinomas. PMID: 3480655

  • chemotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA-125 serum levels. This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy. PMID: 3479814

  • Practical application of CA125 proved to be useful for the early detection of ovarian cancer and confirmation of the complete disappearance of any tumor. PMID: 3461071

  • Routine determination of CA 125 appears advisable in the control of patients with ovarian carcinoma on account of the high sensitivity and specificity during follow-up. PMID: 2408962

  • the measurement of CA125 in sera was considered to be significant in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID: 6595320

  • an excellent marker in the management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID: 2737852

CA125 II

  • has higher precision than that of CA125 when it is used for the screening test. In conclusion, CA125 II is a better tumor marker than conventional CA125. PMID: 7737582


  • may be a useful serum tumor marker for ovarian cancer as a substitute for CA125. PMID: 2170549

caGT (cancer-associated galactosyltransferase antigen)

  • will be a useful tumor marker for ovarian cancers, especially for clear cell carcinoma. PMID: 2105162

CASA or YKL-40

  • Low serum levels of tetranectin, or high serum levels of CASA or YKL-40, are associated with increased risk of second-line chemoresistance in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID: 17013795

Cathepsin B

  • Serum cathepsin B-like activity may be helpful in the preoperative differential diagnosis between ovarian carcinomas and benign ovarian or uterine tumours. PMID: 9166974


  • expressed in ovarian cancer and is a new independent prognostic marker of patient survival. PMID: 12368195


  • a useful marker in determining tumour neovascularisation which might be of prognostic relevance in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID: 10470188


CKB (creatine kinase B)

  • up-regulated in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and that CKB enzyme activity is significantly elevated in sera from ovarian cancer patients, including those with stage I disease. These findings suggest a potential role for CKB as a marker for early diagnosis. PMID: 15589584


  • a suitable marker for the monitoring and diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, when used alone or in combination with CA 125. PMID: 7589737

EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer)

  • a novel marker of poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 12705637

Ep-CAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule)

  • an independent prognostic marker for reduced survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 16678891


GAT (galactosyltransferase associated with tumor)

  • a newly developed tumor marker of ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 8129392, PMID: 8434966

  • The lower positive rate of GAT in endometriosis, when compared with the positive rate of other markers, suggests the usefulness of GAT in distinguishing malignant ovarian tumors from benign ovarian tumors. The use of GAT in a combination assay is expected to overcome the disadvantages of CA602 or CA125. PMID: 8434967

GEP (Granulin-epithelin precursor)

  • a novel prognostic marker in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 15139056

GT-II (Galactosyltransferase isozyme II)

  • a new tumor marker for ovarian cancers--especially for clear cell carcinoma. PMID: 2511259


  • appeared to influence the outcome of advanced ovarian cancer patients included in a clinical trial with prolonged follow-up, thereby suggesting that HER-2 is a potential target for treatment of this cancer. PMID: 14679128

hK8 (Human kallikrein 8)

  • an independent marker of favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. PMID: 16533772

hK10 (Human kallikrein)

  • may be a potential new serological marker for ovarian cancer diagnosis and monitoring. PMID: 11282101

hK13 (Human kallikrein 13)

  • an independent marker of favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. PMID: 14966091


  • a prognostic indicator in advanced-stage ovarian cancer in effusions. PMID: 15589578


  • is likely to be helpful for the diagnosis of CCC in the peritoneal fluid. PMID: 17351940

IAP (immunosuppressive acidic protein)

  • may also be a useful follow-up marker for patients with ovarian cancer (particularly, for the early detection of recurrence). PMID: 3701144

  • not only an excellent clear cell carcinoma (CCC)-specific molecular marker but also a molecular target for therapy of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). PMID: 14633622


  • may therefore be an important additional prognostic marker in ovarian cancer. PMID: 15014034

KLK9 (kallikrein gene 9)

  • a potential new independent favorable prognostic marker for early stage, low-grade, optimally debulked ovarian cancer patients. PMID: 11691797

M-CAM (melanoma cell adhesion molecule)

  • a marker of poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). PMID: 16804906

M-CSF (Macrophage colony-stimulating factor)

  • a marker for ovarian cancer. Determination of serum levels can be useful in detecting ovarian cancer, particularly in combination with CA 125. PMID: 8233270


  • a new tumor marker for the differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and a prognostic factorfor the outcome of epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients. PMID: 17214332

MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2)

  • a potential marker of prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 11748988


  • may serve as a potentially valuable marker for ovarian tumors. PMID: 7763042


  • could be used as a marker for predicting the response to chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. PMID: 9797696

P-III-P (type III procollagen peptide)

  • very useful as tumor marker in diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumors, while it was not aided to detect the early cancers. PMID: 2778385


  • a predictor of response and survival in a uniformly treated and followed cohort of advanced ovarian cancer patients. PMID: 10810398

PP-4 (Placental protein 4)


  • may be used as a tumor marker in "nonendocrine" ovarian tumors. PMID: 6884825

Progesterone Receptor (PR)

  • an independent marker, with its overexpression associated with a favorable prognosis in women with ovarian cancer. PMID: 15721410


  • overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and should be investigated further as a screening or tumor marker, alone and in combination with CA 125. PMID: 11584061


  • frequently overexpressed in ovarian tumors and may contribute to its invasive nature or growth capacity. PMID: 10050107

sialyl SSEA-1 antigen

  • appears to be a useful tumor marker for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, especially when measured simultaneously with CA125, CA19-9, TPA, ferritin and IAP. PMID: 2566639


  • strongly expressed in most ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and in other female genital tract adenocarcinomas, with the exception of ovarian mucinous tumours. The antibody may be useful in confirming the ovarian origin of an adenocarcinoma when used as part of a larger panel. PMID: 11422498

STN antigen (serum sialyl Tn antigen)

  • a positive STN antigen level in sera is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. PMID: 1541859

  • positive STN antigen level in sera is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 1678592


  • might be considered a (progression) marker between the subgroup of benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors. PMID: 9167042

Thymidine Phosphorylase (TP)

  • might be useful in diagnostic characterization of ovarian cancer. PMID: 15262124

TNF Receptors

  • in peritoneal fluid, measurement of soluble TNF receptors, and particularly of p75, has an increased sensitivity and accuracy over CA125 in distinguishing ovarian cancer from benign pelvic masses. PMID: 7729731

Topoisomerase II

tPA (tissue plasminogen activator)

  • High concentration of plasma tPA was an independent marker for poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer in our study. Plasma tPA did, however, not discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal lesions. PMID: 14529669


  • a potential diagnostic marker or target for developing therapeutic strategies to treat ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 16103746


  • a highly sensitive and specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin. PMID: 15354736

  • In assessment of effusion specimens with metastatic carcinoma, nuclear reactivity for WT1 is highly suggestive of an ovary primary tumor. PPMID: 11954027

  • expression of WT1 gene may be indicative of an unfavorable prognosis in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 16606472

YB-1 (Y box-binding protein-1) and P-gp (P-glycoprotein)

  • Co-expression of YB-1 and P-gp emerged as a promising relevant biomarker for unfavorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. PMID: 15099935


Other Ovarian Cancer Markers

  • FDG-PET is a useful technique to detect recurrent ovarian cancers for patients suspected of recurrent ovarian cancers due to asymptomatically elevated serum levels of CA-125 antigen. PMID: 12458332

  • indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase screened with the GeneChip was positively associated with paclitaxel resistance and with impaired survival in patients with serous-type ovarian cancer. PMID: 16115948