Neutrophil Markers




Neutrophil granulocytes, generally referred to as neutrophils, are the most abundant type of white blood cells and form an integral part of the immune system. Their name arrives from staining characteristics on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological preparations. Whereas basophilic cellular components stain dark blue and eosinophilic components stain bright red, neutrophilic components stain a neutral pink. These phagocytes are normally found in the blood stream. However, during the acute phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, neutrophils leave the vasculature and migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis. The mature neutrophil has a segmented nucleus (it is called a seg or poly) while the immature neutrophil has band-shape nucleus (it is called a band). The neutrophil has a lifespan of about 3 days.




8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGUA)

  • Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGUA) excretion as a non-invasive marker of neutrophil activation in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID: 9669636


  • An IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 31D8, that recognizes normal neutrophil (PMN) membranes, was used to study PMN from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). PMID: 3460645

  • has previously been described to bind more avidly to functionally active neutrophils and proved to be useful as a differentiation marker of neutrophils. PMID: 8599975

B558 (7D5)

  • as "early activation" marker--does not necessarily discriminate between primed or resting neutrophils with respect to NADPH oxidase activity. PMID: 1907873

B beta 30-43

  • a sensitive marker of activated neutrophils during fibrinolytic-treated acute myocardial infarction in man. PMID: 1529899




  • neutrophil CD64 is a very sensitive diagnostic marker for the identification of early-onset clinical infection and pneumonia in term newborns. PMID: 15371562

  • Neutrophil CD64 expression is a very sensitive marker for diagnosing late-onset nosocomial infection in very low birthweight infants PMID: 11861933

  • CD64 expression on neutrophils can be used as a sensitive and specific marker to detect infection complicating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID: 17080517

C-reactive protein (CRP)

  • offers a protective effect in neutrophil-mediated lung injury by reducing neutrophil influx and protein leak. PMID: 8424463

  • mediate a release of enzymatic activity from neutrophils which promotes its own degradation in the extracellular medium. PMID: 1544236


  • a marker of terminal neutrophil differentiation. Gelatinase appears in band cells, whereas NGAL and lactoferrin both appear in myelocytes. Thus, acquisition of gelatinase granules marks a step in neutrophil differentiation beyond the appearance of specific granules. PMID: 7833481

  • plasma gelatinase is a marker for circulating neutrophils. Plasma gelatinase does not seem to reflect bone marrow cellularity. PMID: 1464361

Granulocyte Receptor-1 (Gr-1)

  • RB6-8C5 binds to Ly6G, which is present on neutrophils, and to Ly6C, which is expressed on neutrophils, dendritic cells, and subpopulations of lymphocytes and monocytes. 1A8 is a Ly6G-specific mAb and only binds to Ly6G, but not Ly6C, so it is specific neutrophil marker. PMID: 17884993

  • a neutrophil maturation marker. PMID: 15321987

  • the neutrophil-specific marker. PMID: 14525782, PMID: 9716585


  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies reacting with human neutrophil elastase as a diagnostic marker for cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions but not autoimmune vasculitis. PMID: 15457464

HNL (human neutrophil lipocalin)

  • a newly discovered protein from human neutrophil secretory granules, be used as a specific marker of neutrophil activity in vivo and vitro. PMID: 8195592

  • HNL is released from neutrophil granulocytes and is regarded as a specific marker of neutrophil activity, an early marker of neonatal infection. PMID: 15188983

  • a specific neutrophil granule protein, a specific marker for neutrophil activation in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PMID: 12826303

  • a unique marker of neutrophil inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) and proctitis. PMID: 11889070

  • a highly specific marker for acute exacerbation in cystic fibrosis. PMID: 10596704

  • EPO, a unique component of eosinophils, and HNL, a unique component of neutrophils, are useful markers for the identification of eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively, in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. PMID: 11978925

Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3 (HNP-1-3)

  • HNP1-3 is a potential marker for prognostic assessment, surveillance of patients, and monitoring chemotherapy in CRC patients with advanced disease. PMID: 17015013



  • a protein secreted by activated neutrophils, can be used as neutrophil marker to measure murine intestinal inflammation. PMID: 16806255

  • Lactoferrin is the most suitable of these proteins for use as a neutrophil-derived WGLF marker of intestinal inflammation. PMID: 11866274

  • Fecal levels of lactoferrin (Lf) is the most suitable of these proteins to use as neutrophil-derived fecal marker of inflammation for clinical application. PMID: 8633583

  • as a sensitive blood marker of neutrophil activation in normal pregnancies. PMID: 8582494

  • Cell-surface lactoferrin as a marker for degranulation of specific granules in bovine neutrophils. PMID: 10630774


  • lysozyme is indeed found in both the primary and secondary type granules of human neutrophils. PMID: 2476312, PMID: 3470418

  • Lysozyme was found to be present in all three types of human neutrophil granules (azurophil-, specific- and gelatinase granules) as determined by subcellular fractionation, employing a three-layer Percoll gradient and measurement of lysozyme by a novel ELISA. PMID: 7845012

Myeloperoxidase (MPO)

Neutrophil Alkaline Phosphatase (NAP)

  • An enzymatic marker in mothers of trisomy 21 children.PMID: 2454188

  • a marker of maturity in human neutrophils. Studies in normals dosed with aetiocholanolone and prednisolone. PMID: 7400359

Neutrophil Elastase (NE)

  • a proteinase which exists in granulocytes and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. Plasma elastase is a useful independent marker of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID: 10521989

  • Free-form neutrophil elastase is an independent marker predicting recurrence in primary breast cancer. PMID: 7884307

  • Elastase, a marker for neutrophils in skin infiltrates. PMID: 3017400

NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin)

  • a 25-kDa protein initially isolated from the specific granules of human neutrophils, is a member of the highly heterogeneous lipocalin protein family. PMID: 12473066

  • a novel biomarker for early identification of kidney injury. PMID: 17072653, PMID: 16773412

Other Neutrophil Markers

Polymorphonuclear Meutrophil Elastase (PMN-E)


Neutrophil autoantibodies

  • a genetic marker in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. PMID: 8039629

  • circulating antibodies to the neutrophil cytoplasm may be of possible diagnostic value in Sweet's syndrome. PMID: 1869685

Use of an X-linked human neutrophil marker to estimate timing of lyonization and size of the dividing stem cell pool. PMID: 3863835