Endothelial Cell Markers




Endothelial cell is a thin, flattened epithelial cell that forms a thin layer on the interior surfaces of all blood vessels and lymphatics (lymph vessels) through the entire circulatory system. The thin cell layer formed by endothelial cells is called the endothelium which provides an anticoagulant barrier between the vessel wall and blood. Both blood and lymphatic capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells.




Structure & Function

Endothelial Cell Images

Endothelial Cell Pathway

Endothelial Cell Markers


7B4 antigen

  • an endothelial-specific cadherin that plays a role in the organization of lateral endothelial junctions and in the control of permeability properties of vascular endothelium. PMID: 1522121

ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)


  • react with epithelial and endothelial cells in routinely fixed and embedded tissues. PMID: 1716454

CD31 (PECAM-1)

  • a cell adhesion and signaling molecule that is enriched at the endothelial cell junctions. PMID: 10982404

  • CD31 and vWF may be used as markers of glomerular EC loss during GN. PMID: 15631346

  • CD31 as a cell surface marker for subsets of human CD4 cells. PMID: 1345920


  • the human progenitor cell antigen, is localized on endothelial cells, dermal dendritic cells, and perifollicular cells in formalin-fixed normal skin, and on proliferating endothelial cells and stromal spindle-shaped cells in Kaposi's sarcoma. PMID: 2006877

  • a significantly larger number of vessels were registered following staining with anti-CD34 than with anti-CD31 or anti-Factor VIII. PMID: 12780523

  • CD34 antigen is expressed widely on human CNS endothelium in grey and white matter, in the eye including retina, and in the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. PMID: 8732185

CD54 (ICAM-1)

  • also called intercellular adhesion molecule-1 that facilitates the development of cell polarity and modulates endothelial cell migration. PMID: 14985356

  • a molecule crucially involved in SCLC cell-endothelial adhesion. PMID: 15387368

CD62P (p-Selectin GMP140)

  • platelet activation marker. PMID: 10544909

  • P-selectin is a marker of endothelium activation in patients with severe pre-eclampsia. PMID: 15175129

  • Soluble P-selectin is a marker of platelet activation and vessel wall injury. PMID: 10833791

CD105 (Endoglin)

  • highly specific endothelial cell marker and good candidate to highlight the decidual endothelial cells, and to quantify the blood vessels density of endometrium. PMID: 10976807

  • CD105 is a more sensitive marker than CD31 in the evaluation of angiogenesis in glioblastoma. PMID: 15861521

CD146 (P1H12)

  • a novel cell adhesion molecule localized at the endothelial junction. PMID: 15356072

  • sCD146 is a novel marker of the endothelial intercellular junction that reflects endothelial remodeling more effectively than soluble CD31. PMID: 16374253


  • a recently available monoclonal antibody that has been used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. PMID: 15389250


  • soluble E-selectin as a marker of the activation of endothelium. PMID: 9128018


  • reacts with the CD31 antigen and specifically with human endothelial cells. PMID: 7512006

Endothelial cell autoantibodies

  • a marker of disease susceptibility in inflammatory bowel disease but apparently not linked to persistent measles virus infection. PMID: 10866126


  • also called endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (ESM-1), a potential novel endothelial cell marker and a new target for cancer therapy. PMID: 16168566

Endoglin (CD105)

  • a receptor for some of the members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, is expressed on proliferating endothelial cells and has been suggested as a marker of ongoing angiogenesis. PMID: 11987155


  • a pan-endothelial human cell surface glycoprotein complex composed of four different disulfide-bonded protein species with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 500 kDa. PMID: 11559704

  • The highly restricted expression of endoGlyx-1 in normal and tumor blood vessels suggests a role for this molecule unique to endothelial cell physiology. In fact, endoGlyx-1 appears to be the only endothelial lineage-specific cell surface glycoprotein identified to date. The availability of endoGlyx-1 antibodies may aid in the characterization and quantification of the angiogenic phase of solid tumors and facilitate the search for endothelial precursors in bone marrow or peripheral blood. PMID: 7933987


  • an early endothelial-specific antigen that is also expressed on putative hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID: 11747076

Endosialin (tumor endothelial marker 1, TEM-1, FB5)

  • identified as a cell surface tumor endothelial marker. The selective expression of endosialin by tumor vasculature and stroma has been confirmed. Although the function of endosialin remains to be elucidated, the expression pattern for this protein may be favorable for cancer therapy. PMID: 17203210

  • has been assigned the alternate name of tumour endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) due to its identification as a highly upregulated gene transcript in tumour endothelium compared to normal endothelium. PMID: 16965941

  • is abundantly expressed in highly malignant and invasive brain tumors but not by normal endothelium. PMID: 15624764

  • the mouse Tem1/endosialin gene regulated by cell density in vitro and expressed in normal tissues in vivo. PMID: 11489895

  • a highly restricted 165-kDa cell surface glycoprotein expressed by tumor blood vessel endothelium in a broad range of human cancers but not detected in blood vessels or other cell types in many normal tissues. PMID: 11084048


EPAS1 (Endothelial PAS domain protein 1)

  • a basic-helix-loop-helix/PAS domain transcription factor that is expressed preferentially in vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 15192019

Factor VIII related antigen

  • a specific and representative marker of vascular endothelial cells, in normal and ischemic brains. PMID: 2458125


  • a marker for glomerular endothelial cell injury in various types of glomerulonephritis. PMID: 15264181

Flk-1 (VEGFR-2)

  • the first endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase to be expressed in angioblast precursors, and its function is essential for the differentiation of endothelial cells and hematopoietic precursors. PMID: 10361126

Flt-1 (VEGFR-1)

  • also known as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), is a high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF and is expressed almost exclusively on vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 11157498

GBP-1 (guanylate-binding protein-1)

  • a cytoplasmic protein, highly associated with vascular endothelial cells as confirmed by the simultaneous detection of GBP-1 and the endothelial cell-associated marker CD31 in a broad range of human tissues, a novel cellular activation marker that characterizes the IC-activated phenotype of endothelial cells. PMID: 12414522


  • Thrombin induces GRO alpha/MGSA production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID: 7482442


  • an early marker of endothelial precursors but its expression in this progenitor population is much more transient than that of flk-1, being downregulated once endothelial cell differentiation commences. PMID: 9389666

ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2)

  • expression of ICAM-2 in adult tissues is restricted to vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. PMID: 9565596

  • expressed at the endothelial junctions, also mediates angiogenesis. PMID: 15920013


  • expressed by endothelial cells of normal lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. PMID: 15257549


  • a monoclonal antibody which shows high specificity for mouse endothelium in both embryonic and mature tissues. PMID: 7626790


  • stains HEV (high endothelial venules)-like vessels at various sites of inflammation. PMID: 7525849

MRB (magic roundabout)

  • the tumor endothelial specific marker of a Robo family member, is involved in regulating the migration of endothelial cells during tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 15894287


  • a specific marker of angiogenic endothelial cells within the vasculature. PMID: 14638862

PAL-E (pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium)

  • a widely used endothelial-cell marker. PMID: 16099878

  • not reactive to vessels in the normal brain but in brain tumor, developing brain, and brain disease. PMID: 8221574

RPTPmu (Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu)


  • appear to correlate with the specification and early differentiation of the endothelial cell lineage respectively. PMID: 8223275


  • an early marker of endothelial activation related to the systemic inflammation after open heart surgery. PMID: 11817523

TEM1 (Tumor endothelial marker 1)

  • a protein predominantly expressed on the cell surface of endothelial cells in newly developing blood vessels and on tumor cells. PMID: 15953677

TEM5 (Tumor endothelial marker 5)

  • a member of the adhesion family of G-protein coupled receptors and up-regulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. PMID: 16982628

TEM7 (Tumor endothelial marker 7)

  • a novel protein whose cell surface expression is essential during endothelial cell capillary morphogenesis. PMID: 16202431

  • a putative transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in the tumor endothelium. PMID: 15893603

  • a novel protein whose cell surface expression is essential during endothelial cell capillary morphogenesis. PMID: 16202431

TEM8 (Tumor endothelial marker 8)

  • expressed in the neovasculature of human tumors, and in the mouse melanoma B16, but its expression is limited in normal adult tissues. PMID: 17361485

Thrombomodulin (TM, CD141)

  • a specific marker of endothelial cell damage, is a transmembranous glycoprotein with anti-coagulant properties. PMID: 15996335, PMID: 11190905

  • circulating thrombomodulin levels are thus possibly useful for assessment of endothelial damage occurring in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID: 8562716

  • a marker for microvascular but not for macrovascular endothelial cell damage. PMID: 8533445

  • a marker of radiation-induced injury in endothelial cells. PMID: 1332109

  • circulating thrombomodulin is possibly useful for evaluating the endothelial damage in selected disease states. PMID: 1323930

VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) (CD106)

  • Soluble VCAM-1 is a very early marker of endothelial cell activation in cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID: 11817523

  • important mediator of cell migration from blood into tissue. PMID: 11356255

VE-cadherin (CD144)

  • highly specific endothelial cell marker and good candidate to highlight the decidual endothelial cells, and to quantify the blood vessels density of endometrium. PMID: 10976807

VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor)

  • a key regulator of angiogenesis. PMID: 10213212

  • a major angiogenesis inducing factor, to endothelial cells in a concentration dependent manner. PMID: 12175544

vWF (von Willebrand factor)

  • a glycoprotein produced uniquely by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, is routinely used to identify vessels in tissue sections. PMID: 10629090

  • a marker of endothelial cell damage or injury. PMID: 8145653, PMID: 1723232

  • a marker of endothelial cell activation following BMT. PMID: 1490199