Ubiquitin Antibody Review





  • a 76-amino acid protein, is covalently attached to abnormal and short-lived proteins, thus marking them for ATP-dependent proteolysis in eukaryotic cells. PMID: 8430776

  • involved in intracellular protein metabolism, but may also have extracellular roles in host defense and immunomodulation. PMID: 16926027

  • involved in neurodegeneration and various stress responses in the brain. PMID: 15847821

  • the founding member of a family of structurally conserved proteins that regulate a host of processes in eukaryotic cells. PMID: 15571809

  • a highly conserved protein essential to an important pathway that targets proteins for proteolysis. Ubiquitin is an immunophilin. PMID: 11805719

  • Ubiquitination is a universal protein degradation pathway in which the molecules of 8.5-kDa proteolytic peptide ubiquitin are covalently attached to the epsilon-amino group of the substrate's lysine residues. PMID: 11945225

Normal Expression

  • ubiquitin is highly concentrated in the post-synaptic domain of human neuromuscular junctions. PMID: 1321352

  • Immunohistochemical localization revealed that differences in ubiquitin pools derived from the relative content of red (oxidative) vs white (glycolytic) fibers, with the former exhibiting a higher content of ubiquitin conjugates. Subsequent immunogold labeling demonstrated statistically significant enhanced localization of ubiquitin conjugates to the Z-lines in both red and white muscle fiber types. PMID: 2835410

  • Ubiquitin is found within the cytoplasm, nucleus, microvilli, autophagic vacuoles, and lysosomes. PMID: 8430776

  • Ubiquitin was identified. It was expressed at high levels in old fast-twitch muscles but at low levels in young fast-twitch muscles. PMID: 15081892

  • Ubiquitin and UbcH7 were observed in both nucleus and cytoplasm of normal, "premalignant" and malignant tissues of oral mucosa using immunoelectron microscopy. However there was no change in their distribution pattern. PMID: 11754502

  • Ubiquitin was detected within both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cytotrophoblast layer only. Both monomeric and conjugated forms of ubiquitin were detected. The relative abundance of ubiquitin did not change through gestation or in the two disorders of pregnancy studied. This is the first report to demonstrate the cell-specific localisation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-protein conjugates in the human cytotrophoblast and provides supportive evidence that ubiquitin may be important during placental development. PMID: 11742419

Abnormal Expression

  • Using an immunocytochemical method to localise antibodies to ubiquitin, filamentous inclusion bodies were seen in spinal anterior horn neurones in cases of motor neurone disease (MND) but not in any control cases. PMID: 2853853

  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) neurons exhibited ubiquitin positive inclusions and areas of strong immunoreaction for proteasome. PMID: 16806703

  • ubiquitin is increased in serum after trauma and might regulate immune functions. PMID: 16003067

  • an increase in the ubiquitin (Ub)-immunoreactive structures in the midbrain in acute deaths from asphyxiation and in fires in adult subjects. PMID: 15847823

  • Ub-immunoreactivity was clearly observed in the nuclei of the PGM neurons, showing no postmortem interference or age-dependency. A higher value was observed in blunt injuries, fire fatalities and also in saltwater drowning, hyperthermia and delayed head injury deaths. PMID: 15847822

  • Using unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-denervated rats and mass spectrometry profiling directly on brain tissue sections, we here report for the first time an increased level of unconjugated ubiquitin specifically in the dorsal striatum of the dopamine depleted hemisphere. PMID: 15822896

  • Both the ubiquitin protein and apoptosis were expressed in both glandular and stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle of the eutopic endometrium, in which ubiquitin exhibited a cyclic expression, reaching a peak in late proliferative phase. In contrast, ubiquitin was predominantly expressed in cells of stromal origin in endometriosis, was no longer regulated by a cyclic pattern and was associated with an aberrant level of cell survival. PMID: 15447789

  • the levels of free ubiquitin (FUb) and multi-ubiquitin chain (MUC) were up-regulated in colorectal cancer and were correlated with the pathological findings. PMID: 15194223

  • Nine cases of atypical Pick's disease without Pick bodies were investigated immunohistochemically. Ubiquitin (ub)-positive and tau-negative structures were mainly found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus. PMID: 15068171

  • Sections of brains from control mice showed virtually no immunostaining for ubiquitin, whereas sections from SOD1G93A transgenic mice contained numerous granular or linear deposits of ubiquitin. PMID: 12870267

  • Ubiquitin-positive inclusions (UbIs) were located in the cytoplasm of the ependymal cells, and were round to oval in shape, measuring 4-11 microm in diameter. PMID: 12750929

  • All cases with dementia had numerous ubiquitin-positive inclusions in dentate granule cells, whereas involvement of the neocortex was more variable. PMID: 12536219

  • Immunohistochemically, intraneuronal ubiquitin-positive, tau and alpha-synuclein -negative inclusions were present in the small neurons of the dentate gyrus, frontal cortices and putamen. PMID: 12471466

  • Ubiquitin (Ub) was positive in nuclei and cytoplasm of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in immunohistochemistry. The labeling index (L.I.) of ubiquitination was significantly higher with HCC than with other chronic liver diseases and tended to correlate with the lack of poorly-differentiated of HCC. PMID: 12458564

  • In murine skin wound specimens, neutrophils, macrophages and fibroblasts showed intensive Ub-positive reactions in the nuclei. In the human wound specimens with wound ages between 4 h and 1 day, neutrophils with strong intranuclear positive reactions for Ub were observed. With increasing wound ages, the nuclei of macrophages and fibroblasts were more intensively stained with anti-Ub antibody. PMID: 12376835

  • The level of Ub immunoreactivity was measured in nucleus and cytoplasm by electron microscopic immunocytochemical and morphometrical methods. We found a significant increase of Ub level in the nucleus and the cytoplasmic area in premalignant atypical acinar cell nodule (AACN) cells and in malignant adenocarcinoma in situ (CIS) cells at month 20 after initiation. PMID: 11693988

  • Ub-IR cytoplasmic and nuclear staining was significantly greater in both motor neurones and interneurones of MND patients than controls. Ub-IR was less frequent in motor neurone disease (MND) cases in which a great loss of neurones was observed. Ub-IR was significantly more frequent in motor neurones than interneurones, both in patients and controls. Ub-IR inclusions and skeins were only observed in motor neurones from MND patients. PMID: 11679087

  • Ubiquitin was clearly demonstrated in the nuclei of pigmented substantia nigra neurons, showing two intranuclear staining patterns: a type of inclusion (possibly Marinesco bodies) and a diffuse staining. The diffuse staining was significantly more frequently observed in cases of drowning. PMID: 11599772


  • an immunohistochemical marker of Mallory bodies and alcoholic liver disease. PMID: 1652996

  • hyperactivity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in the aging process of fast-twitch muscles. In addition, ubiquitin-dependent growth suppression in satellite cells may be associated with the poor healing potential of old skeletal muscles. PMID: 15081892

  • From the viewpoint of a forensic pathology application, the present study showed that Ub is suitable as a marker of wound age determination. PMID: 12376835

  • Ubiquitin immunohistochemistry is a reliable, reproducible, and readily available diagnostic aid for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease from other causes of dementia. PMID: 10786809

Review Articles

  • Ubiquitin-binding domains. PMID: 17034365

  • Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in cancer pathogenesis. PMID: 16990855

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in viral infections. PMID: 16845885

  • Drug discovery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID: 16816840

  • The nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID: 16687735

  • The ubiquitin system and morphogenesis of fungal pathogens. PMID: 16671358

  • Ubiquitin and SUMO systems in the regulation of mitotic checkpoints. PMID: 16647857

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID: 16595883

  • Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in breast cancer therapy. PMID: 16556079

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cardiac physiology and pathology. PMID: 16501026

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system: focus on the heart. PMID: 16497285

  • Synapse formation and plasticity: recent insights from the perspective of the ubiquitin proteasome system. PMID: 16427269

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system in Huntington's disease. PMID: 16282599

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system and cancer. PMID: 16250906

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system and skeletal muscle wasting. PMID: 16250905

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 16250904

  • Targeting of host-cell ubiquitin pathways by viruses. PMID: 16250903

  • Transgenic manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID: 16250902

  • Fluorescent reporters for the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID: 16250901

  • Response of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to changes in muscle activity. PMID: 15886351

  • Proteomic insights into ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins. PMID: 15701456

  • Ubiquitin, proteasome and parkin. PMID: 15571819

  • Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in breast cancer. PMID: 15245620, PMID: 15021895

  • Mechanism of neurodegenerative disease: role of the ubiquitin proteasome system. PMID: 15224658

  • Motor neuron disease group accompanied by inclusions of unidentified protein signaled by ubiquitin. PMID: 15139588

  • ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a new partner for the control of insulin signaling. PMID: 15075914

  • From neurodegeneration to neurohomeostasis: the role of ubiquitin. PMID: 12792671

  • The ubiquitin superfamily: members, features, and phylogenies. PMID: 12645912



Electron Microscopy (IEM)

  • Several neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron disease (MND), are characterized by formation of abnormal cytoskeleton-derived inclusions which contain ubiquitin (Ubq). We have studied the distribution of Ubq in 26 cases of MND with light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. PMID: 1648124


  • Ubiquitin in cerebrospinal fluid: a rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunoflow assay. PMID: 7948853

  • Daily aliquots were drawn from pRBCs (n = 3) for 42 days and plasma was isolated. Ub was measured by ELISA. PMID: 16926027

  • Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. PMID: 16003067

  • Serum ubiquitin levels were studied by ELISA method. RESULTS: The mean serum ubiquitin level (14.13 +/- 1.46 micrograms/mL) in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly elevated compared to that of the control group (7.66 +/- 0.40 micrograms/mL) (p < 0.001). PMID: 12828075

  • Serum ubiquitin values were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID: 11194212

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • distribution of ubiquitin was studied by immunocytochemistry in eight cases of human spongiform encephalopathy and compared with the findings in seven age- and sex-matched cases of Alzheimer's disease and six non-demented control cases. PMID: 8100355

  • Quantitative studies show that the novel neuropathological technique of anti-ubiquitin immunocytochemistry is more than twice as sensitive as conventional haematoxylin and eosin stains in detecting cortical Lewy bodies. PMID: 2540286

  • Cortical ubiquitin-positive inclusions in frontotemporal dementia without motor neuron disease: a quantitative immunocytochemical study. PMID: 15170577

  • We used immunocytochemistry to identify ubiquitin and beta-amyloid-protein in muscle biopsies from patients with three neuromuscular disorders characterized by the presence of rimmed vacuoles in muscle fibres: inclusion body myositis (IBM), familial IBM-like disorder and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). PMID: 8268725

  • Histological sections of cerebral motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord from 10 cases of clinically diagnosed motor neurone disease (MND) and 10 control cases were examined by conventional histology and immunocytochemical methods to localise ubiquitin. PMID: 2484732

  • Overexpression of HDJ-2 protects astrocytes from ischemia-like injury and reduces redistribution of ubiquitin staining in vitro. PMID: 14526221

Immunofluorescence (IF)

  • We find by immunofluorescence that ubiquitin is present within nucleoli and also demonstrate by immunoprecipitation that complexes associated with pre-rRNA processing factors are ubiquitinated. PMID: 16782897

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • Pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions delineated by ubiquitin immunohistochemistry and novel monoclonal antibodies. PMID: 17003490

  • The optimal methods for carrying out immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues are described, and examples of all the types of intracellular inclusions detected by ubiquitin immunohistochemistry in the diseases are illustrated. PMID: 16338351

  • present report describes the neuropathology of 52 brains with Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) without tau pathology compared with 10 brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without dementia using ubiquitin immunohistochemistry. PMID: 16317257

  • We performed ubiquitin immunohistochemistry on postmortem tissue, representing a wide range of neuroanatomic structures, in cases of classic motor neuron disease (MND) (n = 20), MND-d (n = 15), and FTD-MND type (n = 15). PMID: 16106222

  • Using ubiquitin immunohistochemistry and impregnative Nauta method we demonstrated that ubiquitin positivity and Nauta positivity in the neurons affected with ischemic injury in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rabbits and dogs may be of the same origin. PMID: 15568742

  • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ubiquitin immunohistochemistry. PMID: 15305982

  • Various ubiquitin-positive structures in the hippocampus in diffuse Lewy body disease (n=12) and non-demented aged subjects (n=3) were investigated immunohistochemically. PMID: 9171325

  • Immunohistochemical detection of ubiquitin-positive intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies in diffuse alveolar damage. PMID: 16722934

  • we performed immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the changes in ubiquitin expression in the central nervous system of the transgenic mice expressing a human superoxide dismutase 1 mutation (SOD1)G93A. PMID: 12870267

  • This study provides an immunohistochemical demonstration of the involvement of the ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent pathway during differentiation and organogenesis in plants. PMID: 11506355

  • Ubiquitin-immunohistochemical investigation of atypical Pick's disease without Pick bodies. PMID: 9741407

  • Using immunohistochemistry, we visualized the localization of ubiquitin in the gerbil hippocampus following 3 min of ischemia with or without pretreatment with 2 min of sublethal ischemia and 3 days of reperfusion. PMID: 8397055

  • we examined the expression of ubiquitin in 14 cases of typical inclusion body myositis, in skeletal muscle specimens from four cases of typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and in muscle specimens from three normal controls. PMID: 8393651

  • We have investigated the extent and pattern of immunostaining for ubiquitin protein (UBQ) in 60 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U). PMID: 17021754

  • We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of BDNF, NGF, HSP 70 and ubiquitin in the hippocampus 1 h to 14 days after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. PMID: 16810563

  • Serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded muscle biopsy specimens from 28 Quarter Horse, Paint, and draft-related breeds, aged 0.5-23 years, were treated with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain for glycogen and were immunostained to detect ubiquitin expression. PMID: 16672573

  • Ubiquitin immunohistochemistry was used for investigation of time dependent changes of ubiquitin in the nerve cells reacting to ischemic/reperfusion damage. PMID: 16670948

  • Nine cases of atypical Pick's disease without Pick bodies (aPiD) and seven cases of dementia with motor neuron diseases (D-MND) were compared using immunohistochemistry of ubiquitin (ub) and ub-related proteins. PMID: 15641590

  • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ubiquitin immunohistochemistry. PMID: 15305982

  • Routine and immunohistochemical studies were carried out in a consecutive series of 29 cases of dementia lacking distinctive histology (DLDH). 83% of the cases had ubiquitin-positive inclusions (UPI). PMID: 15178950

  • Lesions of both infarct-related and noninfarct-related segments from the same patients were examined for the expression and localization of ubiquitin by use of immunohistochemistry and a semiquantitative grading scale. PMID: 12475450

Immunoprecipitation (IP)

  • We find by immunofluorescence that ubiquitin is present within nucleoli and also demonstrate by immunoprecipitation that complexes associated with pre-rRNA processing factors are ubiquitinated. PMID: 16782897

Western Blotting (WB)

  • distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) and ubiquitin immunoreactivities in the ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis, and ductus deferens of humans was studied by Western blot analyses and light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. PMID: 8828831

  • Efficient antibodies recognizing ubiquitinated proteins are now available, making ubiquitin immunoblotting a practical tool for research into the many and varied aspects of this extremely interesting posttranslational protein modification. PMID: 15917635

  • Immunoblot analysis also revealed a decrease in the amount of ubiquitin in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the lesion 1 and 3 days post-lesion. PMID: 11935260

  • In this investigation we employed immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting techniques to study the distribution and abundance of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-protein conjugates within human placental specimens from throughout gestation. PMID: 11742419