Synaptophysin (SYP, SY, p38) Antibody Review





  • a synaptic molecular marker and serves as a functional marker of the brain. PMID: 16721760, PMID: 16497279

  • a major integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles. PMID: 16777346, PMID: 16497279

  • This membrane protein is specific for the synaptic vesicles in the central and peripheral nervous system and responsible for neurotransmission. PMID: 16418955

  • synaptic-terminal specific protein. PMID: 15633942

  • a 38-kDa glycoprotein, is one of the most abundant integral membrane proteins of small presynaptic vesicles and is a useful marker for sites of synaptic transmission of the efferent olivocochlear system in the cochlea. PMID: 14599690

  • well characterized for its association with synaptic vesicles (SVs) and therefore a commonly used presynaptic marker. PMID: 12493563

  • a presynaptic vesicle protein, useful in the identification of synaptogenesis. PMID: 12429371

  • synaptophysin is a novel marker for quiescent as well as activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID: 10595912

  • a synaptic vesicle membrane protein that constitutes approximately 7% of the total vesicle protein. PMID: 8643476

  • a polypeptide of molecular weight 38 kD, is a calcium-binding membrane protein found in synaptic vesicles of neurons and smooth surfaced vesicles of neuroendocrine cells. PMID: 8517133

  • a 38-kD glycoprotein, is one of the most abundant of the integral membrane proteins of small synaptic vesicles. PMID: 12106422

  • a sensitive and specific marker of both neuronal lineage and neoplastic character in gangliogliomas. PMID: 2107138

Normal Expression

  • In all hippocampal subfields, synaptophysin was lowest in infancy, but did not differ significantly between the older age groups, except in dentate gyrus (DG) where the rise was delayed until adulthood. A similar developmental profile was found in the rat hippocampus. PMID: 16807900

  • Synaptophysin was expressed in 57% of synaptoporin-containing small dorsal root ganglion neurons and in large dorsal root ganglion neurons. PMID: 16777346

  • synaptophysin immunoreactivity increased from young to middle-age in females, and from middle-age to old in males; females had higher levels of synaptophysin immunoreactivity than males in middle-age only. PMID: 16330151

  • Normal animals showed numerous fine dots of synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the gray matter. PMID: 15602825

  • synaptophysin is expressed in growing neurits and neuronal cell bodies before these neurones have established synaptic connections. PMID: 15144279

  • Immunogold labelling studies in the medial molecular layer of the dentate gyrus demonstrated that gold particles were restricted to pre-synaptic boutons, and were present mainly on the membranes of the synaptic vesicles or occasionally inside vesicles. PMID: 12965244

  • Under the light microscope, synaptophysin (SYN)-like immunoreactivity appeared mainly as dots, mostly among glandular cells, and some were found distributed along blood vessels. SYN-like immunoreactive dots were found under the electron microscope to be localized in the nerve terminals or varicosities. PMID: 11737555

  • Synaptophysin reactivity was present in perisinusoidal stellate cells in both human and rat normal liver biopsies. The number of synaptophysin-reactive perisinusoidal cells increased in pathological conditions. PMID: 10595912

  • present findings show a differential distribution of synaptophysin-immunostained boutons between the ventral and the dorsal cochlear nuclei of the cat. PMID: 9589900

  • Strong synaptophysin immunoreactivity is located in the cytoplasm of the efferent nerve endings at the base of inner and outer hair cells. Besides this, some antibodies to synaptophysin were also identified in the cytoplasm of outer hair cells. PMID: 9364547

  • Synaptophysin (Sy) is a typical membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles (SSV), whereas chromogranin A (CgA) is found in large dense core vesicles (LDCV) and in neurosecretory granules. In controls, Sy is distributed as dots on the neuronal surface, on proximal dendrites and in neuropil, whereas CgA is found in perikarya and dendrites and as puncta in the neuropil. PMID: 7595626

  • synaptophysin content in hippocampus decreases as early as in the adult stage. The most remarkable decrement occurs in occipital cortex. PMID: 7807593

  • In normal liver and chronic hepatitis synaptophysin immunoreactivity was detected in the lobules and portal areas. PMID: 8209189

  • Synaptophysin-immunoreactive (SP-IR) spots were distributed on the surface of the cells. Electron-microscopic observation showed that the SP-IR staining was localized at presynaptic terminals, indicating that the SP-IR spots observed will, fluorescence microscopy represent presynaptic terminals. PMID: 1664927

  • presence of synaptophysin in pinealocytes of the normal pineal, including the deep portions of the gland, emphasizes the paraneuronal character of these cells. PMID: 2115313

  • Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was found in varicose nerve terminals in all regions of the heart. PMID: 3102413

Abnormal Expression

  • immunostainings for synaptophysin were absent near neurons bearing clusters of oligomer Abeta. PMID: 16721760

  • Degenerating neurons showed strong intracytoplasmic labelling indicating abnormal accumulation of synaptophysin. PMID: 15737349

  • synaptophysin immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the inner and outer molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (both p<0.01 by paired t-test), but not in the hilus in schizophrenia. PMID: 15694236

  • loss of motor neurons and the decrease of synaptophysin in the remaining motor neurons could lead to functional motor deficits, which may contribute significantly to the progression of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND). PMID: 15668955

  • In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Pick's disease (PiD), synaptophysin immunoreactivity was visibly reduced in the outer molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (OMDG) Densitometric analysis. PMID: 15633942

  • Hippocampal synaptophysin immunoreactivity is reduced during natural hypothermia in ground squirrels. PMID: 12781914

  • As an incidental finding in paraffin sections of brain tissue used as positive controls for synaptophysin immunostain, the cytoplasm of choroid plexus epithelium present was found to stain strongly positively for this substance. This was subsequently found to be the case in normal choroid plexuses in autopsy material from infancy to old age, as well as in epithelial cells of papillomas and carcinomas of the choroid plexus. PMID: 10218635

  • Almost all 'neuronal giant cells' and some of the 'indeterminate giant cells' in the white matter showed intense immunoreactivity for synaptophysin: cell borders were surrounded by an intense immunoreactive halo. In conclusion, these immunohistochemical patterns for synaptophysin assist in characterizing these abnormal cells in the cortical tubers of patients with tuberous sclerosis. PMID: 9071486

  • synaptophysin expression is decreased within the medial temporal lobe in schizophrenia. PMID: 8552231

  • synaptophysin-like immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex in patients with definite and possible Alzheimer's disease but not in multi-infarct dementia patients compared to controls. PMID: 7700527

  • In the human retina, synaptophysin-like immunoreactivity was present in both plexiform layers, but could not be detected in neuronal perikarya. However, in reactive retinas present in retinoblastoma eyes, synaptophysin was often observed in perikarya and processes of photoreceptors. Positive neoplastic cells were found in 45 of the 54 retinoblastomas. PMID: 2464554

  • Synaptophysin (SYP) was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of somatotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs, and gonadotrophs by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method using a monoclonal antibody (SY38). PMID: 3134875

Expression Alteration

  • the cognitive impairment caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion may be partially explained by reduced expression of synaptophysin and MAP-2 at the protein level. PMID: 15964096

  • there were slight increases in immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the stratum oriens and striatum radiatum of CA1 subfield of hippocampus when ethanol was administered prior to trauma comparing to moderate increase in the trauma-only group. PMID: 14977068

  • early synaptophysin immunoreactivity changes were seen in both the axotomized and non-axotomized sides, but the rate of change in the axotomized side was more rapid than that of the non-axotomized side. PMID: 14757523

  • Synaptophysin was increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn with a peak level on day 14 and returned to baseline on day 21 post-chronic constriction injury (CCI). PMID: 12429371

  • Synaptophysin immunostaining underwent a major, bilateral decline in the anteroventral and posteroventral cochlear nuclei, interrupted at intervening periods by transient increases in the numbers of stained structures following acoustic trauma. PMID: 12429223

  • Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the rat pituitary: alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. PMID: 9867254

  • Immunoreactivity for synaptophysin was transiently increased in the ischemic lesions from 3 to 7 days after cerebral ischemia. Thereafter, synaptophysin immunostaining in the damaged areas gradually decreased and finally almost disappeared one month after surgery. PMID: 8102940

Expression Comparison of Synaptophysin and Synaptoporin

  • Distributions of two homologous synaptic vesicle proteins, synaptoporin and synaptophysin, in the mammalian retina. PMID: 8797152

  • Differential expression of synaptophysin and synaptoporin during pre- and postnatal development of the rat hippocampal network. PMID: 7874316

  • Synaptophysin and synaptoporin expression in the developing rat olfactory system. PMID: 8403385

  • Ontogeny of synaptophysin and synaptoporin in the central nervous system: differential expression in striatal neurons and their afferents during development. PMID: 8485845


  • Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry is also a good tool for studies of axonal swellings in spinal cord injuries. PMID: 15602825

  • expression of synaptophysin in epithelial cells of the thymic cortex suggests that this protein may be involved in secretory activities related to T-cell maturation. PMID: 9889259

  • Rapid synaptophysin (SY) staining is a simple and consistently reliable method for the intraoperative evaluation of the distribution of synapses in myenteric plexuses as well as smooth muscle layers. PMID: 9021564

  • synaptic vesicle proteins like synaptophysin are functionally important in neuronal development. PMID: 12106422

  • Synaptophysin (SYN) is a useful marker for medulloblastomas, indicating that this tumor is a primitive neuronal-neuroblastic neoplasm. PMID: 2109316

  • SYP is a highly sensitive and useful marker for pancreatic neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms. PMID: 3032010, PMID: 3103452

  • synaptophysin is a reliable marker for medulloblastomas as well as other differentiated and undifferentiated neuronal tumours and in this respect is superior to the more heterogeneous expression patterns of IF proteins in these tumours. PMID: 3107209

  • synaptophysin expression is correlated with synaptogenesis. Thus synaptophysin may be used as a reliable marker of nerve terminal differentiation. PMID: 3091767

  • synaptophysin is expressed independently of other neuronal differentiation markers and propose that it be used as a differentiation marker in tumor diagnosis. PMID: 3010302

Review Articles

  • Synaptophysin: leading actor or walk-on role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis? PMID: 15057942

  • Synapsin I, synapsin II, and synaptophysin: marker proteins of synaptic vesicles. PMID: 7903586

  • Synaptophysin. A widespread constituent of small neuroendocrine vesicles and a new tool in tumor diagnosis. PMID: 1649612



Dot Blot Assay

  • We describe a simple yet highly sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for relative quantification of the synapse marker protein synaptophysin in human brain homogenate fractions with the mouse MAb SY38. PMID: 8288869

  • Expression of the integral membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles, synaptophysin, was investigated in the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 using a quantiative dot immunoassay. PMID: 2509223


  • present study quantified potential synaptic plasticity throughout the brains of C57BL/6 mice using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for two synaptic proteins, synaptophysin and PSD-95. PMID: 15082021

  • Two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) have been established for the specific and sensitive determination of two membrane proteins of the small synaptic vesicles (SSV), namely: peripheral synapsin I and integral synaptophysin. PMID: 9692851

  • A two-sided enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been established for reliable, specific and sensitive determination of synaptophysin (SYN), an intrinsic membrane protein of the small synaptic vesicles. PMID: 8707931

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • localization and appearance of synaptophysin-immunoreactive (IR) nerve cells and their relationships with the developing gastric layers were studied by immunocytochemistry and light microscopy in the embryonic rat stomach. PMID: 15144279

  • Synaptophysin and synapsin, closely correlated on synaptic vesicles in terminals, may show a differential distribution at synapse formation and maturation. In order to disclose the fine structural details of these differences, synapsin and synaptophysin distribution was studied by immunocytochemistry on ligated bovine splenic axons in vitro and compared with terminals in the vas deferens. PMID: 9748630

  • Expression of synaptophysin, synapsin I and syntaxin was studied immunocytochemically in the developing rat retina using indirect immunoperoxidase technique. PMID: 9352109

  • Using immunocytochemical techniques and adjusted optical density measurements, we examined synaptophysin immunoreactivity in prefrontal cortical areas 9 and 46 and in area 17 (the primary visual cortex) from 10 pairs of case subjects with schizophrenia and control subjects matched on a pairwise basis for age, sex, race, and postmortem interval, and in 5 matched pairs of nonschizophrenic psychiatric case subjects and normal control subjects. PMID: 9337775

  • We have compared the neuronal survival and differentiation, the synaptophysin expression and the glial cell percentage in primary neuronal cultures using two different media. PMID: 7833536

  • Immunocytochemical labeling of undifferentiated PC12 cells reveals concentrations of synaptophysin in the perinuclear region. After neuronotypic differentiation, there is reduction in perinuclear labeling and concentration of label in swellings along PC12 cell processes. PMID: 8380434

  • Immunocytochemical localization of synaptophysin on the smooth-surfaced tubular membranes present in nerve terminal and preterminal areas in the rat cerebellar cortex. PMID: 1793665

  • Localization of synaptophysin was examined immunocytochemically using a monoclonal antibody (SY-38) against synaptophysin. PMID: 1664927

  • Synaptophysin and synapsin I, the synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, were demonstrated immunocytochemically in nerve terminals of the neurohypophysis of rats. PMID: 1908264

Immuno-Electron Microscopy (IEM)

  • Synaptophysin expression was assessed in dentate gyrus prepared from aged (22 months) and young (4 months) rats by immunoblotting and post-embedding immunolabelling at electron microscope level. PMID: 12965244

  • Growth cones of regenerating nerves, following crush injury to the rat peripheral nerve system, were studied by electron microscopy and synaptophysin. PMID: 11127287

  • Expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin was studied in lesion-induced sprouting neurons of the contralateral entorhinal cortex and in the contralateral dentate gyrus using immunocytochemistry at the light- and electron-microscopic level. PMID: 9386006

  • Here we present results of the electron-microscopic analysis for postembedding immunoreactivity of synaptophysin in the cochlea of the guinea pig of LR-White-embedded samples. PMID: 9364547  

  • Ultrastructural distribution of synaptophysin and synaptic vesicle recycling at the frog neuromuscular junction. PMID: 8723766

  • We investigated PD brains with light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry using antibodies against two marker proteins for neuronal secretory vesicles, synaptophysin and chromogranin A. PMID: 8131084

  • localization of synaptophysin in the organ of Corti of the human as shown by immunoelectron microscopy. PMID: 8517133

  • Subcellular localization of secretogranin II and synaptophysin by immunoelectron microscopy in differentiated hypothalamic neurons in culture. PMID: 1918927

  • Ultrastructural localization of synaptophysin to the secretory granules of normal glucagon and insulin cells in human islets of Langerhans. PMID: 1908157

  • Ultrastructural double localization of B-50/GAP43 and synaptophysin (p38) in the neonatal and adult rat hippocampus. PMID: 2149862

  • Immunoelectron microscopic localization of synaptophysin in a Golgi subcompartment of developing hypothalamic neurons. PMID: 3143927

Immunofluorescence (IF)

  • we compared the expression of AP180 with synaptophysin in the aged human brain using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID: 12493563

  • Postmortem analysis used a confocal laser-scanning microscopy method to quantify changes in immunofluorescence staining for the presynaptic vesicle glycoprotein, synaptophysin (SYN), in the principal relays of hippocampal circuitry. PMID: 10964964

  • Colocalisation of synaptophysin has been studied in different neuroendocrine cell types in histologically normal mucosa from human gastrointestinal tract (corpus, antrum, duodenum, ileum and colon) using double-immunofluorescence stainings. PMID: 9930883

  • While investigating the localization of synaptophysin in PC12 cells using immunofluorescence microscopy, we noticed a striking difference in its apparent subcellular distribution depending on whether digitonin or Triton X-100 was used as permeabilization agent of paraformaldehyde (PFA)-fixed cells. PMID: 9790863

  • we have used immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the distribution of two synaptic vesicle proteins, synapsin I and synaptophysin, in hippocampal neurons developing in culture. PMID: 1904480

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • This study examined magnitude-dependent changes of SYP in the rat brain 2 days following low, moderate or high fluid percussion injuries and investigated time-dependent changes of SYP in the rat brain with moderate fluid percussion injury 2, 15 and 30 days after trauma using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. PMID: 16497279

  • The most striking finding on immunohistochemistry was the marked nuclear staining of cells with synaptophysin in all layers of the PUJ obstruction specimens that was totally absent in the normal PUJ specimens. PMID: 16461096

  • Immunohistochemistry was performed using rabbit anti-human antibodies specific for synaptophysin (DAKO). PMID: 16418955

  • degree of synaptic reinnervation was evaluated in the horizontal crista of the first group of animals using immunohistochemical techniques and antibodies against synaptophysin, a marker for synaptic reinnervation and synaptogenesis. PMID: 12634456

  • In the present study, we used synaptophysin immunohistochemistry to demonstrate activation-induced neural sprouting in non-mossy fiber cortical pathways in the adult rat. PMID: 12453493

  • Using an indirect immunohistochemical method, synaptophysin immunoreactivity (SYN-IR) has been studied in cryostat sections of stellate and thoracic ganglia in human fetuses, neonates, infants and adults. PMID: 11508360

  • In this study, the expression of both proteins (Synaptophysin and syntaxin-1) was examined in the developing human retina and compared with their distribution in postnatal to adult retinas, by immunohistochemistry. PMID: 11426054

  • In the present study hippocampal sections from 25 patients who had temporal lobe epilepsy and had previously been assigned a grade were examined with synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. PMID: 10442558

  • hippocampus was sectioned and analysed immunohistochemically using an antibody to the synapse-specific protein synaptophysin, to gain an estimate of the synaptic content of selected hippocampal subfields. PMID: 10196449

  • modern stereological techniques were used to estimate total neuron and synaptophysin-positive bouton number in hippocampal subregions at the light microscopic level. PMID: 10192220

  • Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was studied in paraffin-embedded sections of the central nervous system (CNS) in 14 normal human fetuses and neonates ranging in age from 8 to 41 weeks gestation, and in three brains with heterotopic neurons or malformations. PMID: 10082252

  • This study presents patterns of synaptogenesis in the chick basilar papilla (i.e., cochlea) by examining the immunohistochemical expression of synaptophysin with a specific monoclonal antibody, SBI 20.10. PMID: 10027562

  • Synaptophysin (SY) immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the postnatal development of the rat nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and nucleus ambiguus/ventrolateral medulla (NA/VLM). PMID: 9878786

  • Synaptophysin (SY) immunohistochemistry (IHC) was undertaken in surgically resected hippocampal specimens from 25 patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID: 9839773

  • After perfusional fixation the brains were frozen and cut in the coronal plane and stained either with cresyl violet or standard immunohistochemical methods using the anti-synaptophysin antibody. PMID: 9595859

  • presence of synaptophysin in the lumbosacral enlargement of developing opossums, Monodelphis domestica, was studied immunohistochemically at the light microscopic level. PMID: 9555018

  • Synaptic endings were identified immunohistochemically, using a monoclonal antibody to synaptophysin. Immunolabeling was quantified densitometrically in the CN 4-161 days after cochlear removal and 161 days after ossicle removal. PMID: 9068122

  • Comparative immunohistochemical study on synaptophysin expression in the anterior horn of post-poliomyelitis and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID: 8922059

  • We present immunohistochemical data showing synaptophysin expression by cochlear hair cells in both late stage embryos and adult chickens. Immunoblotting of cochleae confirmed an antigen with an apparent molecular weight appropriate for synaptophysin that increases with development. PMID: 8904790

  • The expression of synaptophysin was immunohistocytochemically examined at the protein level in the cerebellar cortex of the neonatal rat with special reference to the development of granule cells. PMID: 8765714

  • We used synaptophysin immunohistochemistry to detect changes in synaptic distribution in the main olfactory bulb during normal early postnatal development and following early olfactory restriction. PMID: 8861719

  • Synaptophysin expression in the human spinal cord. Diagnostic implications of an immunohistochemical study. PMID: 8772779

  • Synaptophysin in spinal anterior horn in aging and ALS: an immunohistological study. PMID: 9013418

  • Thirty normal cases and 10 patients with a variety of neurologic diseases were studied, using quantitative immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody to synaptophysin. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was stable during the first 36 h after death, showing no significant change at 1, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h postmortem in normals. However, at 48 and 72 h postmortem, synaptophysin immunoreactivity decreased significantly. PMID: 7550601

  • sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemical staining for these two proteins in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was studied in a series of 67 neuroectodermal, neuroendocrine, and non-neural tumors. PMID: 8287627

  • Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry reveals inside-out pattern of early synaptogenesis in ferret cerebral cortex. PMID: 8468403

  • An immunoperoxidase technique was used to locate synaptophysin (protein p38), a major integral membrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles, in the rat brain. PMID: 8213090

  • To determine if synaptogenesis occurs, antibodies to synaptophysin, a calcium-binding protein found on synaptic vesicles, were used with immunohistochemical techniques to assess the level of synaptophysin immunoreactivity as a measure of changes in the number of synapses. PMID: 1480319

  • Immunohistochemical study of synaptophysin distribution in the superior cervical ganglion of newborn and adult rats. PMID: 1607597

  • In the present study, the endocrine pancreas in 9 mammalian species (man, dog, mink, bovine, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, mouse, gerbil) has been investigated immunohistochemically for synaptophysin immunoreactivity. PMID: 1907886

  • Synaptophysin expression was studied immunohistochemically in 109 female and in three male breast carcinomas. PMID: 1904394

  • Quantitative immunohistochemistry of synaptophysin in human neocortex: an alternative method to estimate density of presynaptic terminals in paraffin sections. PMID: 2110586

  • Immunohistochemical quantification of the synapse-related protein synaptophysin in Alzheimer disease. PMID: 2505201

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

  • The brains of 9 patients with schizophrenia and 9 age-matched control subjects were studied. The levels of synaptophysin and chromogranins were measured by radioimmunoassays. PMID: 10624552

  • The radioimmunoassay was used for optimising the conditions for purification of synaptophysin from rat brain. PMID: 7522390

Radioimmunocytochemistry (RICC)

  • A synaptic protein, synaptophysin, was also quantified by radioimmunocytochemistry (RICC) in brain to determine possible mechanisms for behavioral changes. PMID: 15251263

Western Blotting (WB)

  • Amounts of SYP measured by Western blotting remained unchanged in brains with moderate fluid percussion within 30 days after trauma. PMID: 16497279

  • expression of synaptophysin (SYP) in hippocampal tissue of the rats was examined by means of western blot and immunohistochemical staining techniques. PMID: 15584914

  • Synaptophysin expression was assessed in dentate gyrus prepared from aged (22 months) and young (4 months) rats by immunoblotting and post-embedding immunolabelling at electron microscope level. PMID: 12965244

  • We have determined the consequence of increased auditory stimulation on the developmental profile of synaptic proteins, synaptophysin and syntaxin 1, in the chick brainstem auditory nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris, by immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques. PMID: 12220561

  • We used immunohistochemistry, Western immunoblotting and densitometry to study the distribution of synaptophysin and to quantify relative protein. PMID: 12429371

  • We used Western blotting to assess four synaptic proteins: synaptophysin, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), complexin I and complexin II, which inform about somewhat different aspects of the synaptic circuitry. PMID: 11576753

  • A general consensus exists that the presynaptic terminals in the hippocampal CA1 area are resistant to ischemic stress in spite of the loss of their target cells (CA1 pyramidal neurons). We have verified this by immunostaining and Western immunoblotting using the antibodies for presynaptic proteins, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and synaptophysin in gerbils after bilateral carotid artery ligature. PMID: 11382392

  • The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using Western blotting to determine the striatal synaptophysin levels in rats chronically treated with haloperidol followed by sub-acute administration of a DA agonist. PMID: 9294977

  • Synaptophysin (a presynaptic vesicle protein) levels were quantified by immunoblotting of synaptic membrane fractions isolated from hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, caudate nucleus, and occipital cortex. Average synaptophysin levels were reduced in hippocampus when comparing definite AD to controls. PMID: 9258263

  • we used three techniques to measure synaptophysin-immunoreactivity in rat brain. The levels of synaptophysin protein were determined by Western blots of five hippocampal subregions; the intensity of synaptophysin-immunoreactivity in dentate gyrus and stratum oriens was determined by optical densitometry of immunocytochemically stained sections; and the total number of synaptophysin-immunoreactivity presynaptic boutons in dentate gyrus and stratum oriens was assessed by unbiased stereology. PMID: 9023727

  • The expression of two genes encoding the neuronal specific proteins synaptophysin and high molecular weight neurofilaments was investigated in primary cell cultures of embryonic mouse brain infected with dengue virus type 2, using immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. PMID: 7919816

  • content and the distribution of synaptophysin in the developing cells were assessed by quantitative immunoblotting and light microscope immunocytochemistry, respectively. PMID: 1685844

  • Using Western blotting, a major polypeptide comigrating with human brain synaptophysin was detected in human retina, and a similar but slightly slower migrating band in retinoblastoma. PMID: 2464554

  • Western immunoblot analysis of Triton X-100 extracts from rat brain showed that polyclonal polyspecific anti-synaptin antibodies and monoclonal antibody SY38 against synaptophysin both reacted with a band of 38 kDa. PMID: 2462508

  • We have analyzed the properties and subcellular localization of synaptophysin (protein p38) in bovine adrenal medulla. In one-dimensional immunoblotting the adrenal antigen appears identical to synaptophysin of rat synaptic vesicles. PMID: 3139837