Mast Cell Tryptase Antibody Review





  • a trypsin-like activity was found in mast cells in 1960. PMID: 16640553

  • Mast cells, which are granulocytes found in peripheral tissue, play a central role in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions. PMID: 15200544, PMID: 16640553

  • Tryptases constitute a subfamily of trypsin-like proteinases, stored in the mast cell secretory granules of all mammalian organisms. These enzymes are released along with other mediators into the extracellular medium upon mast cell activation/degranulation. Among the trypsin-like enzymes, tryptases are unique: they are present as active enzymes in the mast cell granules, but display activity only extracellularly, and have a specificity which is much more restricted than trypsin. PMID: 15170507

  • Mast cell tryptases are a family of serine proteinases which are implicated in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, upregulation of interleukin-8 synthesis by endothelial cells, and recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils. PMID: 10848900

  • three major mast cell (MC) products, tryptase, histamine and TNF-alpha (TNF) are normally present in human skin MCs, which are in close proximity to dermal fibroblasts. PMID: 16314928

  • a neutral protease of human mast cells, and an important indicator of mast cell activation and degranulation in anaphylactic events. PMID: 15734110

  • beta-Tryptase is a neutral serine protease and is the most abundant mediator stored in mast cell granules. The release of beta-tryptase from the secretory granules is a characteristic feature of mast cell degranulation. Mast cell beta-tryptase has an important role in inflammation and serves as a marker of mast cell activation. PMID: 15200544

  • Mast cell tryptase has been implicated in the development of tissue fibrosis in skin and lungs. PMID: 11461939

  • generated and released during trauma and inflammation. PMID: 10358115

  • rat mast cell tryptase, unlike tryptases in other species, is a soluble enzyme. It is stored in an active form and is absent from some mast cell subpopulations in mucosa, skin and lung. PMID: 10192550

  • Tryptase, a serine protease, is the major protein component in mast cells. PMID: 10092484

  • Mast cell tryptase has been shown to be mitogenic for fibroblasts. Tryptase increases not only the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts but also type I collagen production. PMID: 10024222

  • Tryptase and chymase are proteinases present only in mast cells. PMID: 8039976

  • a trypsin-like serine proteinase of mast cell secretory granules, is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts in vitro. PMID: 1864960

Normal Expression

  • Tryptase labelling using monoclonal antibody G3 was also present in all mast cells detected, and was retained in altered granules (=activated mast cells), where B7 labelling was sparse. PMID: 11810190

  • majority of mast cells in the uterus reside in the myometrium and that they co-express mast cell tryptase and MMP-1 in the same intracellular granules. PMID: 11385111

  • overall numbers of tryptase-reactive cells did not differ from normal skin, although tryptase activity and mRNA expression were increased in scar extracts. PMID: 10620115

  • Tryptase-containing cells were detected in lung, skin, and peritoneal lavage cells. Small intestine mucosa, on the other hand, showed few if any tryptase-positive cells. Sequential staining with Alcian blue and anti-tryptase antibody showed that tryptase is located only in mast cells. Sequential staining with safranin to identify the connective tissue type of mast cell and anti-tryptase antibody showed that tryptase resides only in this mast cell type. This study suggests that the rat connective tissue type of mast cell is subdivided into two forms on the basis of the presence or absence of tryptase, whereas rat mucosal mast cells lack this enzyme. These results contrast with those in humans, in which tryptase is present in all mast cells, but are similar to mice, in which tryptase mRNA has been detected only in the connective tissue type. PMID: 7685789

  • Rat mast cell tryptase is located largely if not totally in the cell's secretory granules. PMID: 1929434

Abnormal Expression

  • number of dermal mast cells is increased in patients on hemodialysis. PMID: 16372800

  • Serum mast cell beta-tryptase concentration is increased in anaphylaxis and in other allergic conditions. It is increased in systemic mastocytosis and other haematological conditions. PMID: 15200544

  • Mast cell tryptase becomes elevated in trauma deaths and this seems to be ascribable either to direct mechanical injury to tissue mast cells and/or to cell lysis. PMID: 12505465

  • Mast cells could not be detected in damaged glomeruli in any form of renal disease. PMID: 11461939

  • Tryptase-positive mast cells increased with tumor progression and were close to newly formed blood vessels. PMID: 11457936

  • In specimens with normal spermatogenesis, mast cells were round and located mainly in the interstitial spaces close to Leydig cells. In germ cell arrest syndrome, a 2-fold increase was evident, and in Sertoli cell only syndrome, a >3-fold increase of tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells became evident. PMID: 10927038

  • elevated tryptase concentrations in sudden infant death are caused by allergy. PMID: 10594541

  • a third type of MC, MCC, expressing chymase without concomitant expression of tryptase can be induced in vitro from normal human progenitors. In addition, it shows that tryptase and chymase, two MC-specific proteases, can be differentially expressed in in vitro derived human MCs by changing the cytokine combination of the culture. PMID: 8648132

  • Tryptase, a protease unique to the mast cell secretory granule, is released in substantial quantities into the respiratory tract of patients with inflammatory disease of the airways. PMID: 8598474

  • mast cell specific proteolytic enzyme tryptase was significantly elevated in Multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that mast cell activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID: 7818259

  • number of mast cells is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and that the altered appearance of the mast cells suggests that they are activated and undergoing degranulation. PMID: 1434854


  • Mast cells or even tryptase itself may be involved in the pathogenesis of pruritus of hemodialysis patients. PMID: 16372800

  • MC(TC) may be involved in the pathogenesis of angiogenesis in lung cancer. PMID: 16125954

  • Tryptase measurements may emerge as a novel way of identifying asymptomatic patients with CAD, and represent a new biomarker of therapeutic efficacy in patients with CAD. PMID: 15694948

  • Mast cell tryptase may exert its angiogenic effects in part through selective stimulation of angiogenic chemokines. PMID: 15586361

  • tryptases seem to be involved in a number of mast cell-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases. In particular, the involvement of tryptase in asthma, an inflammatory disease of the airways often caused by allergy, has been proposed. PMID: 15170507

  • Human mast cell tryptase-beta, a tryptic serine protease with a unique structure, is an interesting therapeutic target that several companies and institutions have targeted for drug discovery. PMID: 12937605

  • human mast cell beta-tryptase, has potent gelatin-degrading properties, indicating a potential contribution of this protease to matrix degradation. PMID: 12874242

  • serum tryptase level is used as a diagnostic marker in mastocytosis and is considered to reflect the burden of (neoplastic) mast cells (MC). PMID: 12065914

  • mast cell tryptase plays a role in the proliferation and extracellular matrix protein production of renal interstitial fibroblasts and thus contributes to the development of renal interstitial fibrosis. PMID: 11461939

  • Histologic detection of mast cells cannot adequately reflect their function and state of activation, since degranulated mast cells may escape from histologic assessment. PMID: 11252410

  • human mast cell tryptase alters the contractile response of non-sensitized human isolated bronchi and that this alteration is accompanied by a change in the mast cell distribution within the airway wall. PMID: 10336598

  • human mast cell tryptase may be a potent stimulus of microvascular leakage. PMID: 9203574

  • release of tryptase from activated mast cells may provide a signal for abnormal fibrosis in inflammatory disease. PMID: 9077541

  • combined use of histamine and tryptase measurements can therefore provide useful evidence regarding the role of mast cell activation in the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses. PMID: 1607547

  • the role of rat mast cell tryptase extracellularly is likely to differ greatly from that of chymase. PMID: 1929434



Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

  • In 44 of these cases, tryptase was measured in both heart and femoral blood. Mast cell tryptase was analyzed with a commercial FEIA method. PMID: 16710735

  • In the present study, serum tryptase levels were measured in patients with mastocytosis by fluoroenzyme immunoassay and compared with the extent of infiltration of the bone marrow (BM) by neoplastic MC, determined by tryptase immunohistochemistry. PMID: 12065914

  • serum total tryptase levels were determined in 150 patients with acute leukemias (de novo acute myeloid leukemia [AML], n = 108; secondary AML, n = 25; acute lymphoid leukemia [ALL], n = 17) by fluoroenzyme immunoassay. PMID: 11568008

Electron Microscopy (EM)

  • In situ detection of the mast cell proteases chymase and tryptase in human lung tissue using light and electron microscopy. PMID: 11810190


  • Skin suction blister fluid and plasma levels of stem-cell factor, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, and total mast-cell tryptase were analyzed by means of ELISA. PMID: 11799370

  • Levels of canine tryptase from various tissues (skin, gut, liver and lung) were quantified using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The assay utilises an affinity-purified rabbit anti-tryptase antibody in the solid phase and alkaline-phosphatase conjugated tryptase together with unlabelled tryptase in the fluid phase. PMID: 7502484

Flow Cytometry (FC)

  • peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were fixed, permeabilized, stained with antibodies to tryptase and a panel of mast cell- and basophil-specific markers, and analyzed by means of flow cytometry. PMID: 11842299

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • potential role of mast cell-derived tryptase in the development of renal fibrosis was studied using immunohistochemical techniques and cultured human renal fibroblast cell lines. PMID: 11461939

  • a double-labelling immunocytochemical procedure with monoclonal antibodies specific for tryptase and chymase was applied to identify those mast cells which contain both tryptase and chymase (MCTC) and those with tryptase but not chymase (MCT). PMID: 9875142

Immunofluorescence (IF)

  • MCs from all the skin specimens showed the characteristic skin MC phenotype, with predominantly scroll-poor granules by ultrastructure and containing tryptase and chymase by immunofluorescence detection (the MCTC immunophenotype). PMID: 1562049

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • Tumor sections from 32 cases of adenocarcinoma and 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma were immunostained for chymase to evaluate MC(TC), tryptase to evaluate MC(T,) and CD34 to evaluate microvessel counts. PMID: 16125954

  • Immunohistochemical staining of bone marrow sections with anti-tryptase antibody as well as immunoelectron microscopy revealed tryptase expression in the cytoplasm of myeloblasts. PMID: 11568008

  • Quantification of mast cells with immunostaining for mast cell tryptase (MCT) was completed, with the estimation of diffuse extracellular staining considered to indicate degranulation. PMID: 11176318

  • distribution of tryptase in skin, lung and gut was determined by immunohistochemistry, and compared with the distribution of sheep mast cell proteinase-1 (sMCP-1). PMID: 10848900

  • we have examined the presence and the pulmonary distribution of mast cell tryptase utilizing specific immunohistochemical studies and morphometric evaluation in six cases of fatal amniotic fluid embolism compared to six subjects who died following anaphylactic shock and two control groups (five and six cases respectively) of traumatic death. PMID: 9728749

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of mast cell disease in paraffin sections using tryptase, CD68, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, and CD20 antibodies. PMID: 8902835

  • distribution of MC and the amount of tryptase in histological tissue sections were determined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antihuman tryptase antibodies and the results were quantitated by using an image analyzing system. PMID: 8890052

  • distribution of pulmonary mast cells exhibiting tryptase immunoreactivity was investigated by immunoperoxidase staining in autopsy specimens of infants dying with Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). PMID: 7567212

  • Mast cell tryptase and chymase, and the neuropeptides Substance P (SP) vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) were stained by enzyme- and immunohistochemical methods. PMID: 8039976

  • We examined the cellular distribution of rat tryptase in rat skin, lung, small intestine, and peritoneal lavage cells by immunohistochemical techniques. PMID: 7685789

  • number and distribution of mast cells in non-lesional and lesional skin samples from 13 psoriatic patients were analyzed enzyme- and immunohistochemically. PMID: 8342961

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

  • Evidence for mast cell tryptase presence and degree of activation in the middle ear effusion (MEE) were measured by using Western blotting and radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID: 14597368

  • After detection of the initial basal tryptase release, gut mucosal samples were incubated in a modified Hanks/RPM1 medium using a mucosa oxygenation system. Spontaneous tryptase secretion from 153 viable samples of 22 controls, 30 patients with Crohn disease (CD) and 19 with ulcerative colitis (UC) was followed over 4 h. Tryptase was measured by radioimmunoassay. PMID: 11252410

  • Two RIAs for tryptase were employed: one with monoclonal antibody AA5, which was found to bind equally well to both alpha and beta isoforms on Western blots of the recombinant enzyme, and the other with antibody G5, which recognizes predominantly beta-tryptase. PMID: 9404229

  • Tryptase was measured by solid phase radioimmunoassay in urine samples, collected immediately (spot) and during a period of 24 h, obtained from normal women volunteers, controls and patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). PMID: 7648070

  • A new radioimmunoassay for human mast cell tryptase using monoclonal antibodies. PMID: 2019745

  • Enzyme- and immunohistochemical localization of mast cell tryptase in psoriatic skin. PMID: 2688561

Western Blot (WB)

  • Evidence for mast cell tryptase presence and degree of activation in the middle ear effusion (MEE) were measured by using Western blotting and radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID: 14597368

  • amount of tryptase was further studied by Western-blotting and measurement of trypsin-like activity from the neutral salt extracts obtained from different types of jaw cysts. PMID: 8890052

  • Tryptase was identified on Western blots of 2-D-separated proteins by its binding of mAb and of 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate. PMID: 8360486