Involucrin Antibody Review





  • a molecular marker for differentiation, is an oxygen-regulated protein. PMID: 14760391

  • a marker of squamous and urothelial differentiation. PMID: 3889247

  • useful marker for an early stage in the pathway of terminal differentiation. PMID: 6345687

  • function as a TG (transglutaminase) substrate under optimal conditions and in the absence of other substrates. PMID: 10657763, PMID: 2871834

  • a keratinocyte protein that first appears in the cell cytosol, but ultimately becomes cross-linked to membrane proteins by transglutaminase. PMID: 2873896

  • a sensitive and specific marker for squamous and urothelial differentiation. PMID: 3889247

  • a soluble protein precursor of the envelope, is synthesized at an earlier stage of differentiation, both in the natural epithelium and in cultured keratinocytes. PMID: 6895226

  • a protein subunit of keratinocyte cross-linked envelopes, is a distinctive marker for suprabasal differentiation in stratified squamous epithelium. PMID: 6184301

  • specific marker for squamous differentiation. PMID: 6195449

Normal Expression

  • synthesized after keratinocytes have left the basal layer and begun to enlarge, but some time before the onset of envelope cross-linking, which occurs only in the outermost cell layers. PMID: 6345687

  • a soluble protein precursor of the cross-linked envelope present in the submembranous zone of human stratum corneum, and subsequently demonstrated in stratified squamous epithelia. PMID: 3889247

  • a marker of differentiation in keratinocytes. first appears in the cytosol of keratinocytes and ultimately cross-linked to membrane proteins via transglutaminase and forms a protective barrier as an insoluble envelope beneath the plasma membrane. PMID: 12126624

  • in normal mouse epidermis the onset of involucrin expression is in the upper spinous layers and inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Involucrin was also detected in the differentiating epithelial cells of normal tongue, oesophagus and bladder. PMID: 11099111

  • In normal and condylomatous squamous epithelium, diffuse cytoplasmic staining was seen in the suprabasal layers, with no staining of the basal cells. PMID: 3886522

  • In normal squamous epithelium and normal urothelium, staining was most intense in the superficial layers where it was concentrated at the cell periphery and gradually decreased toward the basal layer. PMID: 3889247, PMID: 2427985

  • found predominantly in cells of the granular layer and inner stratum corneum. The label was associated primarily with amorphous cytoplasmic material and especially keratohyaline granules. Some labeling was observed at the cell periphery, but little with keratin filaments. PMID: 2578499

  • detected as early as 9 weeks of gestation in the superficial cells of the oral cavity epithelium. PMID: 16245629

  • Normal squamous epithelia and mildly dysplastic epithelia show uniform staining in the suprabasal and superficial layers of the mucosa but show no staining in the basal layer. PMID: 6207802

  • diffuse intracellular staining (at cell borders) typical of keratinocytes of the upper third of normal epidermis and epidermal hyperplasias and benign neoplasms. PMID: 6392430

  • a precursor of cross-linked protein of human stratum corneum, and its appearance in the upper layers of the epidermis is a function of the normal differentiation of the keratinocyte. PMID: 6210326

  • not present in the deepest epithelial cells but appears in the course of their outward migration. The cells of the basal layer are nearly always free of detectable involucrin. PMID: 6895225

Abnormal Expression

  • a specific marker for epithelial and adnexal differentiation of skin tumours. PMID: 3082067

  • a specific immunohistochemical marker of squamous differentiation in lung carcinomas. PMID: 1737626

  • most of the involucrin-positive cells were located at the central parts of tumour cell clusters of squamous cell carcinomas except for one case in which the peripheral cells around tumour cell clusters were positive. PMID: 7690007

  • immunostaining for involucrin was common in squamous carcinomas but was also found in adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas, large cell carcinomas and carcinosarcomas. Small cell carcinomas, carcinoid tumours and mesotheliomas were negative. PMID: 1737626

  • cervical condylomas showed involucrin at all levels of the epithelium including the basal layer. PMID: 2295450

  • Involucrin expression in odontogenic tumors was divided into three categories: single cell positive, focally positive, and squamous metaplastic cell positive. PMID: 2470003

  • Undifferentiated cell carcinomas demonstrated an irregular distribution of involucrin of varying staining intensity while deposition in squamous cell carcinomas was limited to keratinized areas. PMID: 2683315

  • keratoacanthoma and the squamous eddies in various tumours stained strongly. Trichofolliculoma, trichilemmoma and pilomatrixoma exhibited characteristic staining patterns which resembled those in the normal hair follicle. On the other hand the majority of the tumours of sweat gland origin did not stain, with restricted positive reactions in areas showing lumen formation or squamous metaplasia. In contrast to the lack of staining in syringoma, a positive reaction was observed in desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, which is histologically similar to syringoma. PMID: 3314967

  • atypical or dysplastic lichenoid lesions (LD), as well as carcinoma in situ, despite squamoid differentiation, demonstrated irregular distribution of involucrin, suggesting disturbances in terminal differentiation. Invasive components of SCCa (squamous cell carcinoma) revealed markedly diminished involucrin expression. PMID: 3309779

  • the staining in CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) tended to be focal, and intensity of staining varied widely from cell to cell in all layers of the epithelium. PMID: 3792933

  • conjunctival dysplasias show an involvement also of deeper layers of the epithelium, sparing the basal layers. Three carcinomas in situ and one invasive squamous cell carcinoma, however, demonstrate an involvement of all layers of the epithelium. PMID: 3531699

  • Hyperkeratosis was characterized by strong positive staining for involucrum in spinous and granular cell layers. A similar pattern was noted in seborrheic keratosis and verruca vulgaris. Condyloma acuminatum specimens revealed slight staining, whereas Paget cells were negative. Calcifying epitheliomas of Malherbe were usually unreactive. Papillomas exhibited the regular distribution of involucrin, as found in normal squamous epithelium. Basal cell carcinomas were generally negative, whereas squamous cell carcinomas showed an irregular distribution of involucrin. PMID: 2427985

  • Moderate to severe dysplasias and invasive carcinomas demonstrate irregular or focal staining in all three layers. PMID: 6207802

Expression Alteration

  • In all these cases of lamellar ichthyosis, a thin or absent cornified envelope, electron-dense granules inside corneocytes and a decrease of the epidermal involucrin expression were observed. In the patients receiving treatment with retinoids, western blot and ELISA revealed an increase in the involucrin expression. PMID: 10210784

  • Cholesterol depletion upregulates involucrin expression in epidermal keratinocytes through activation of p38. PMID: 15304097

  • involucrin expression of keratinocytes is suppressed by RXM through direct inhibition of AP-1 and indirect inhibition of NF-kappaB. PMID: 16140218

  • CBP and P/CAF are important regulators of involucrin expression in stratified squamous epithelial cells. PMID: 15025563



Electron Microscopy

  • immunoelectron microscopy was used to examine hINV (human involucrin) distribution in the hair follicle and epidermis. PMID: 8251264

  • Immuno-ultrastructural localization of involucrin in squamous epithelium and cultured keratinocytes. PMID: 2578499


  • In the patients receiving treatment with retinoids, western blot and ELISA revealed an increase in the involucrin expression. PMID: 10210784

Flow Cytometry

  • population of involucrin-positive cells was estimated by immunofluorescent staining using anti-involucrin antibody and flow cytometry. PMID: 1988301


  • 35 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin were analysed by immunohistochemical techniques. PMID: 7539622

  • study was conducted to determine the patterns of immunohistochemical characterization of keratin (K) and involucrin in solar keratosis and Bowen's disease in order to clarify the abnormal differentiation or maturation of the tumor cells in these precancerous epithelial dermatoses. PMID: 8600780

  • study was conducted to determine the immunohistochemical distribution of cytokeratins and involucrin in calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe. PMID: 7524610

  • expression of involucrin, a structural component of the envelope of mature squamous epithelium, was studied in 166 paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas. PMID: 7694421

  • Immunolocalization of involucrin in human middle ear cholesteatoma was performed with specific rabbit anti-human involucrin antibody. PMID: 2683803

  • uses an immunoperoxidase technique for localization of involucrin in paraffin sections of normal conjunctiva, conjunctival dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. PMID: 3531699

  • keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were examined by immunoperoxidase methods for involucrin and both 45- and 63-kilodalton keratins. PMID: 2419374

  • condyloma or intraepithelial neoplasia were stained by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique for involucrin. PMID: 3542863

  • Immunohistochemical staining for involucrin, a cytoplasmic protein synthesized during squamous maturation, was assessed in histologic sections from hysterectomy and cone biopsy specimens from patients with cervical neoplasia. PMID: 3886522

  • immunoperoxidase technique was used to assess the distribution of involucrin in 107 normal and 318 abnormal tissues. PMID: 3889247

  • involucrin expression using an immunoperoxidase technique in normal skin and in a variety of epidermal hyperplasias and neoplasms. PMID: 6392430

  • Cases of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated for the presence of involucrin using immunoperoxidase techniques on paraffin sections. PMID: 6210326

  • study was undertaken to determine whether immunoperoxidase stains for keratin and involucrin, the latter a protein present in cells of stratified squamous epithelium that have differentiated beyond the basal stage, distinguish any differences in squamous cells present in the adenoacanthoma from those in the adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine corpus. PMID: 6203856

  • immunohistochemical techniques for localization of involucrin in histologic sections from 91 lung tumors in order to evaluate the usefulness of involucrin as a tumor marker in lung neoplasms. PMID: 6195449

  • Immunoperoxidase staining for involucrin was used to evaluate paraffin sections of tissue obtained by colposcopically directed biopsies of infectious, metaplastic, and dysplastic lesions of the cervix and vagina. PMID: 6184301

Western Blot

  • In the patients receiving treatment with retinoids, western blot and ELISA revealed an increase in the involucrin expression. PMID: 10210784