CD68 Antibody Review





Normal Expression

  • fibroblasts isolated from normal skin, normal breast, breast tumor tissue, and osteoarthritis synovia clearly expressed CD68 protein at levels comparable to macrophages. PMID: 16888915

  • epithelial cells express the typical phagocytic marker CD68. PMID: 12110279

  • expressed in monocytes and Mphi. PMID: 11454064

  • with a fine granular cytoplasmic staining which was coexpressed with BAP as revealed by immunodoublestaining. PMID: 10755442

  • Macrosialin, the mouse homolog of human CD68, is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein found almost exclusively in macrophages, and is predominantly intracellular but show clearly that 10-15% of it is expressed on the cell surface.  PMID: 10648004, PMID: 10051440, PMID: 9806844, PMID: 7568176

  • CD68+ dendritic epidermal cells were identified in normal skin and consisted of half the population of CD1a+ LC. These data indicate that CD68+ dendritic epidermal cells constitute a subpopulation of CD1a+ LC. CLA was expressed on a small percentage of CD68+ dendritic epidermal cells in normal skin. PMID: 9865449

  • although the surface expression of MS/CD68 at steady-state represents only a small percentage of their total cellular content, these proteins can play a significant role in oxidized LDL uptake by activated macrophages in vitro and could contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID: 8962141

  • expressed in macrophages, astrocytes and microglial cells. PMID: 8855083

  • CD68 antigen is constitutively expressed in NK cells and gamma/delta T cells and that its expression is strongly induced in activated CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as LAK cells. PMID: 8088761

  • anti-CD68 (EBM11) antibody is a useful marker of macrophages in normal bovine tissues or tissues from areas of acute or chronic inflammation that have been routinely processed. PMID: 8053129

  • KP-1 (CD68) is a recently described monoclonal antibody to a cytoplasmic epitope present on tissue histiocytes and macrophages. PMID: 1317667

  • CD68 antigen was found in the primary granules of neutrophils, although not all primary granules were labeled. It was absent from the plasma membrane. In monocytes, it was also detected within cytoplasmic granules, colocalized with lysozyme and myeloperoxidase. PMID: 1719819

Abnormal Expression

  • CD68-positive mononuclear cells were observed in neoplastic tissue or around pseudopsammoma bodies and in perivascular areas, with minimal expression in one patient and moderate expression in three patients. PMID: 16145535

  • The expression of CD68 was statistically significantly higher in the aggressive nHL than in indolent nHL. An increased number of CD68 positive macrophages in clinically aggressive nHL may confirm their role in tumour progression. PMID: 15638380

  • patients who developed ESRF showed higher percentages of glomerular segmental sclerosis, interstitial MCP-1 expression, CCR2- or CD68-positive monocyte/macrophages and foam cells in the interstitium. PMID: 15361701

  • Most of the histiocytes in the palisading granulomas were strongly positive for CD68. PMID: 15243522

  • expressed in various human malignancies including chronic and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PMID: 12357353

  • Immunoperoxidase staining revealed that CD68+ cells were present in both lesions (in human granulomas and periapical cysts). PMID: 11505271

  • number of tumor-infiltrating CD68-positive macrophages contributes to prognosis and associates with cell type and microvascular density, which merits a further analysis of the biological role of these cells in uveal melanoma. PMID: 11381040

  • Detection of both increased CD68-positive histiocytes by immunohistochemistry and iron-stained phagocytic cells in marrow biopsy specimens appeared to be helpful for diagnosis of HPS in this patient, whose marrow showed myelofibrosis with hypocellularity. PMID: 11201150

  • portal tract (mean) density of CD68(+) and MAC387(+) cells was significantly increased in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared with normal tissue. PMID: 10644323

  • Immunohistochemically, CD68-positive cells showed significant heterogeneity and were detected as round, rod-shaped, ameboid and ramified cells in meningiomas. PMID: 10622450

  • A remarkably increased number of CD68+ dendritic epidermal cells and upregulation of CLA on CD68+ dendritic epidermal cells were observed in diseased skin. PMID: 9865449

  • the number of CD68+ cells was significantly enhanced in hepatitis B with moderate and severe inflammatory activity. The highest incidence of macrophages was found in portal tracts of liver with fatty liver hepatitis and, particularly, hepatitis B. PMID: 9699943

  • massively infiltrated foam cells in the papillary dermis were CD68+ monocyte-macrophage lineage cells, and that the majority of CD68+ cells coexpressed scavenger receptors. PMID: 8593263

  • KP1 shows a relatively wide spectrum of immunoreactivity with malignant neoplasms of presumed non-histiocyte origin, thus arguing against its expected specificity and high value in diagnostic pathology. PMID: 7726138

  • giant cells in all the lesions, some stromal cells, and osteoclasts in the normal bone showed CD68 and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) immunoreactivity. PMID: 7907656

  • CD68 is expressed in a proportion of epithelial tumours although the labelling is usually less intense than in macrophages. PMID: 7684403

  • CD68 monocyte-macrophage-associated lysosomal antigen was expressed in granular cells which however had no Mac 387 reactivity. PMID: 8094017

Expression Alteration

  • treatment with pioglitazone reduces expression of CD68 and MCP-1 in adipose tissue, apparently by reducing macrophage numbers, resulting in reduced inflammatory cytokine production and improvement in S(I). PMID: 16046295

  • atorvastatin prevents the increase in the expression of scavenger receptor CD68 and that of fatty acid binding protein 4 caused by oxLDL. PMID: 15110783

  • CD68 expression is down-regulated in lymphoid cells by combinatorial interactions between PU.1 and IRF-4. PMID: 12676954

  • Expression of CD68 at the site of laser injury is consistent with a wound healing process as a response to local damage. PMID: 12642316

  • granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is released by activated T cells in immune thrombocytopenic purpura and activates monocyte/macrophage phagocytosis, resulting in an increase of circulating CD68-positive microparticles and enhanced platelet destruction. PMID: 7615050

  • CD68+ cells are decreased already in an early stage of HIV-Infection. PMID: 1724811



Electron Microscopy (EM)

  • Studies with the immunoelectron microscope revealed reaction products of PM-1K in the cytoplasm, especially around endosomes. PMID: 16710801

  • The ultrastructural localization of the CD68 antigen, a 110-kd intracellular glycoprotein associated with myeloid cells and with monocytes/macrophages, was investigated in human neutrophil granulocytes by postembedding immunogold staining, using monoclonal antibody KP1. PMID: 1719819

  • Light and electron microscopy showed that the CD68 epitope is associated with (phago-)lysosomes. PMID: 1834546

Flow Cytometry (FACS)

  • Expression of CD68 was also analysed by FACS on the monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937, as well as on synovial fibroblasts (SFB), skin FB, and gingival FB (both surface and intracellular staining). PMID: 15194571

  • CD68(+) mono/macrophages were separated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors by means of immunomagnetic cell sorting for subsequent analysis with flow cytometry. PMID: 15151842

  • Flow cytometric analysis divided cells contained within tumor tissues into CD68-positive and -negative cells. PMID: 10622450

  • Earlier immunostaining studies have shown that MS and its human homolog, CD68, are predominantly intracellular proteins. However, using sensitive techniques such as flow cytometry (FACS) and cell-surface-specific biotinylation, we now show that there is significant surface expression of these proteins. PMID: 8962141

  • Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular CD68 molecule expression in normal and malignant haemopoiesis. PMID: 7669655

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • present study compared the immunocytochemical staining of various equine tissues (lymphoid tissue, lung, liver, small intestine, skin and blood leucocytes) by an antibody, Ki-M6, which detects CD68 in human macrophages and dendritic cells, and by a new anti-equine mAb, JB10, with staining produced by two previously described anti-equine macrophage mAbs, CZ2.2 and CZ3.3. PMID: 10684683

  • Cells involved in the process of decomposition of infarcted tissue were analysed with immunocytochemical methods and CD68, EMB11 (Dako) monoclonal antibody (MAB) was used. PMID: 8855083

  • Using a panel of CD68 mAb (KP1, EMB11, Ki-M6, Y1/82A, and Y2/131) we performed immunohistochemistry on three cytospin preparations of freshly isolated human RPE cells, three primary human RPE cultures, and 12 human RPE cell lines maintained in culture for up to 40 passages. PMID: 1397126

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • In immunohistochemical assays, PM-1K recognized freshly isolated blood monocytes and most tissue macrophages as well as myeloid dendritic cells such as Langerhans cells and interdigitating cells. PMID: 16710801

  • Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of CD68 and CR3/43 in tumor specimens. PMID: 16145535

  • Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on paraffin-embedded specimens with monoclonal anti-CD68 antibody. PMID: 15638380

  • IHC was performed on cryostat sections of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial membranes using the anti-CD68 mAbs KP1, EBM11, and PGM1, and the fibroblast (FB) markers CD90 and prolyl 4-hydroxylase. PMID: 15194571

  • Nasal polyp tissues from 50 patients were evaluated for cellular expression of CD45RO, CD20, CD68 and PCNA using immunohistochemistry. PMID: 14515776

  • we detected CD68+ cells by means of standard indirect three-step immunohistochemical method having used MAb NCL-CD68-KP1 (macrophage marker) to find out whether such cells are actually present. PMID: 12572894

  • Expression of VEGF, EGFR, and CD68 were examined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary colon tumors and graded as the percentage of cells stained. PMID: 12569594

  • Immunoperoxidase staining was carried out using monoclonal antibodies against CD44, alpha-smooth muscle actin and CD68 on renal biopsy specimens from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN, n = 16) and mesangial proliferative IgA-negative glomerulonephritis (MesProGN, n = 15). PMID: 12476618

  • Immunoperoxidase staining revealed that CD68+ cells were present in both lesions (in human granulomas and periapical cysts). PMID: 11505271

  • Liver biopsy specimens from infants with BA (n = 15), neonatal hepatitis (n = 3), and normal livers (n = 6) were studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies against MHC Class II antigen and macrophage-associated antigens (CD68) as well as routine H&E and Masson's trichome stain. PMID: 9126761

  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of the lysosome-associated glycoprotein CD68 (KP-1) in granular cell tumors and schwannomas. PMID: 7959661

  • A commercially acquired anti-human macrophage antibody (anti-CD68; EBM11) was used in an immunocytochemical technique to detect macrophages in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from cattle, pigs, humans, rats, turkeys, dogs, and cats. PMID: 8053129

  • PG-M1 detects a fixative-resistant epitope on the macrophage-restricted form of the CD68 antigen. In 957 routinely fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, PG-M1 showed a more restricted reactivity with elements of the monocyte/macrophage lineage than the previously described monoclonal antibodies MAC-387 (anti-calgranulins), KP1 (CD68) and Ki-M1P. PMID: 7684194

  • Immunohistochemistry for the histiocyte antigens CD68, L1, factor XIIIa, and S100 protein was performed on 19 cases of angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) and for keratin, leukocyte common antigen, factor VIII-related antigen, muramidase, and desmin on six of these cases. PMID: 1676879

Western Blot (WB)

  • Ligand blots with Ox-LDL and Western blots with Ki-M6, an anti-human CD68 monoclonal antibody, revealed a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 120 kD under reducing and nonreducing condition. PMID: 9409300

  • distribution of the pan-macrophage CD68 antigen, recognized by six different monoclonal antibodies, was examined in human blood, tissue, and cell lines using APAAP staining and Western blotting. PMID: 2078523