Beta Amyloid (Abeta) Antibody Review





  • a peptide of 39-42 amino acids generated in vivo by specific, proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. PMID: 17429215

  • a 4kDa proteolytic product of the longer beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). PMID: 8915610

  • the major constituent of the senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 12770555

  • a major component of the characteristic amyloid deposits or senile plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and aged Down's syndrome subjects. PMID: 10842078

  • a proteolytic fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a key component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. PMID: 17413026, PMID: 17405928

  • the deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in brain represents the first pathogenetic event in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID: 17673335

  • widely considered to be the molecule that causes Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID: 17644432

  • plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID: 17499931

  • caused a disruption of synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID: 17499934

  • possibly affects neuronal cell membranes of Alzheimer patients via a receptor or target molecule. PMID: 17398282

  • generated in the ER, Golgi, and endosomal/lysosomal system. PMID: 11813874

Normal Expression

  • abundant accumulation of beta-amyloid also occurs in the brains of cognitively normal elderly people, in the absence of obvious neuronal dysfunction. PMID: 16103127

  • Soluble A beta (Sa beta) is normally present at a low concentration in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID: 9180278

  • Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. PMID: 9141082

  • Amyloid beta protein and transthyretin, sequestrating protein colocalize in normal human kidney. PMID: 9148240

Abnormal Expression

  • APP and beta-amyloid were expressed in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes. PMID: 17712316

  • In the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, beta amyloid protein is the major component of senile plaque. In ischemic stress, beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta amyloid peptide are reported to be upregulated. PMID: 11460917

  • The senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease contain a high concentration of beta-amyloid (betaA) protein, which may affect the glial population in the septal nucleus, an area of increased risk in AD. PMID: 17406977

  • a major component of senile plaque in AD, is known to be derived from ischemic brain or activated platelets. PMID: 15682267

  • Abeta was present in 4 of 9 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes. Within these eyes, Abeta localized to a subset of drusen. None of the 9 normal eyes surveyed, some of which had small drusen, were A beta positive. PMID: 12764254

  • We report an unusual case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) marked by extensive cerebral amyloid-beta deposition in small and medium-size vessels, capillaries, and perivascular plaques in the cerebral cortex, and in most leptomeningeal vessels. PMID: 12214003

  • Distinct vascular and periadnexal immunoreactivity have been observed for amyloid b protein (Abeta) in skin from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID: 11041332

  • high proportions of cortical microvessels are associated with A beta 42, which may affect microvascular function. PMID: 10818492

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Value

  • Abeta may influence the development of dementia with Lewy bodies, and therefore strategies to reduce Abeta may benefit this condition. PMID: 17502554

  • CSF Abeta peptides may reflect disease-specific impact of distinct neurodegenerative processes on Abeta peptide metabolism and represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for AD, FTD and DLB. PMID: 17339876

  • Abeta peptides may contribute to angiogenesis occurring in AD and suggest that limiting the pro-angiogenic activity of Abeta peptides may therefore provide a useful target to control angiogenesis associated to AD and therefore limit the disease progression. PMID: 17334633

  • Diagnostic and therapeutic trials that measure Abeta should control for the time of CSF sampling to minimize variability. PMID: 17325273

  • Abeta*56 impairs memory independently of plaques or neuronal loss, and may contribute to cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 16541076

  • The combined use of CSF tau and Abeta42 may be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of alcohol related cognitive disorder (ARCD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in the early stages, where diagnostic uncertainty is greater. PMID: 16035118

  • disease-specific CSF Abeta peptide patterns in CJD and AD and suppose that measurement of the Abeta peptide pattern seems to be a promising diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of dementias. PMID: 12891683

  • In nine brain-injured patients, extensive colocalizations of Abeta, APP, and NF protein were found in swollen axons. PMID: 12744368

  • Abeta-42 and tau may play a potential role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that Abeta-42 may be a supportive early predictor for recovery after severe head injury. PMID: 12743231

  • CSF-Abeta42 have a satisfactory performance when used as a diagnostic marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical routine. PMID: 12128078

  • abnormal platelet Abeta release occurs in hypercholesterolaemia. PMID: 11277986

  • CSF-beta-amyloid(1-42) analyses may be of value in the clinical diagnosis of AD, especially in the early course of the disease, when drug therapy may have the greatest potential of being effective but clinical diagnosis is particularly difficult. PMID: 10369305

  • The combined measure of CSF Abeta42 and tau meets the requirements for clinical use in discriminating AD from normal aging and specific neurologic disorders. PMID: 10331678

Review Articles

  • The role of amyloid beta peptide 42 in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 17716740

  • Intracellular amyloid beta-protein and its associated molecules in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 17073707

  • Role of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-beta and gamma-secretase in cholesterol maintenance. PMID: 17047372

  • beta-Amyloid Degradation and Alzheimer's Disease. PMID: 17047308

  • Physiological roles for amyloid beta peptides. PMID: 16809372

  • Amyloid-beta immunotherapies in mice and men. PMID: 16772748

  • The development of amyloid beta protein deposits in the aged brain. PMID: 16525193

  • Amyloid beta: the alternate hypothesis. PMID: 16472207

  • The role of the endoplasmic reticulum in the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 16472119

  • Amyloid beta-peptide: the inside story. PMID: 15975052

  • Metals and amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 15910549

  • Role of water-soluble amyloid-beta in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 15910548

  • The immune system, amyloid-beta peptide, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 15882358       

  • Amyloid-beta and tau proteins as biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 15190680

  • Down syndrome and beta-amyloid deposition. PMID: 15021233

  • Alzheimer's disease: beta-Amyloid protein and tau. PMID: 12391602

  • Imaging amyloid-beta deposits in vivo. PMID: 12218409

  • The role of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 12168562

  • Beta-amyloid, neuronal death and Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 11899259

  • The amyloid-beta peptide and its role in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 11428545

  • Intracellular biology of Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide. PMID: 10653285

  • Beta-amyloid: Alzheimer's disease and brain beta-amyloidoses. PMID: 10424897




  • Sensitive ELISA detection of amyloid-beta protofibrils in biological samples. PMID: 17623042

  • Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA and xMAP technology for analysis of amyloid beta(42) and tau proteins. PMID: 17395712

  • ELISA method for measurement of amyloid-beta levels. PMID: 15980612

  • Development of a specific ELISA for the quantitative study of amino-terminally truncated beta-amyloid peptides. PMID: 15922029

  • Quantification of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptides ending at residues 40 and 42 by novel ELISA systems. PMID: 10949910

  • Characterization of amyloid beta protein species in cerebral amyloid angiopathy of a squirrel monkey by immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID: 9295214

  • Amyloid beta protein 1-42/43 (A beta 1-42/43) in cerebellar diffuse plaques: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemical study. PMID: 7648258

  • Plasma Abeta40 and Abeta42, and neopterin levels were quantitated by sandwich ELISA. PMID: 17275850

  • The levels of CSF Abeta were measured by a sandwich ELISA assay. PMID: 16125620

  • ELISA quantitation of Abeta in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of beta-amyloid deposition. PMID: 15980611

  • Plasma amyloid beta protein 1-40 (Abeta40) and Abeta42 levels were quantitated from 28 young Down syndrome (DS) (20-40 years old), 28 age-matched controls, 32 old DS (41-65 years old) and 32 age-matched controls in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID: 12757888

  • Abetax-40 and Abetax-42, were used in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine the levels of amyloid beta-peptide in postmortem brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients (N=10), normal elderly comparison subjects (N=11), and schizophrenia patients with (N=7) or without (N=26) Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 12727689

  • A sensitive ELISA was performed to detect levels of naturally occurring anti-Abeta antibodies in the CSF of patients with AD and age-matched controls. PMID: 11552007

  • the Abeta content in each fraction was quantified by a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID: 11395399

  • The standardization and clinical validation of the measurement of beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine is described using a commercially available sandwich-type ELISA with 21F12 and 3D6 as monoclonal antibodies. PMID: 11132093

  • Levels of Abeta40 and Abeta42 were measured in plasma from 78 patients with AD and 61 controls and in CSF from 36 patients with AD and 29 controls by means of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID: 10634455

  • A two-site sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also utilized to compare levels of total soluble and insoluble A beta (1-40) and A beta (1-42) obtained from temporal cortex of MPS patients. PMID: 10446806

Flow Cytometry (FC)

  • Detection of amyloid-beta oligomers in human cerebrospinal fluid by flow cytometry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. PMID: 17361040

  • Flow cytometric analysis on cytotoxic action of amyloid beta protein fragment 25-35 on brain neurons dissociated from the rats. PMID: 7859081

Immuno-Electron Microscopy

  • beta-Amyloid immunoreactivity in astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease brain biopsies: an electron microscope study. PMID: 10448435

  • Light and electron microscopic localization of beta-amyloid protein in muscle biopsies of patients with inclusion-body myositis. PMID: 1321564

  • Immunogold electron microscopic study of cerebrovascular and senile plaque amyloid using anti-beta protein antibody. PMID: 2690130

  • Beta amyloid is focally deposited within the outer basement membrane in the amyloid angiopathy of Alzheimer's disease. An immunoelectron microscopic study. PMID: 1632466

  • Immunoelectron microscopic localization of amyloid beta protein in the diffuse plaques of Alzheimer-type dementia. PMID: 2407313

  • We used postembedding immunocytochemistry at the electron microscopic level to determine the subcellular distribution of beta-amyloid 1-40 and beta-amyloid 1-42 peptides in the prefrontal and parietal cortex of behaviorally characterized dogs ranging in age from one to 17 years. PMID: 10717430

  • An immunogold electron microscope study was therefore carried out on biopsies of brain tissue from patients with AD using a monoclonal antibody raised against residues 8 to 17 of the A beta protein. PMID: 10448435

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • Amyloid beta protein (A beta) in Alzheimer's disease brain. Biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis with antibodies specific for forms ending at A beta 40 or A beta 42(43). PMID: 7706234

  • We used immunocytochemistry to identify ubiquitin and beta-amyloid-protein in muscle biopsies from patients with three neuromuscular disorders characterized by the presence of rimmed vacuoles in muscle fibres. PMID: 8268725

  • Protein chemical and immunocytochemical studies of meningovascular beta-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging. PMID: 3214703

  • We have investigated in the rat, immunocytochemically, the expression of beta-amyloid peptide in glial cells following ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. PMID: 12417398

  • Paraffin embedded archival brain autopsy tissues were assessed by immunocytochemistry for beta-amyloid. PMID: 15750394

  • We have investigated in the rat, immunocytochemically, the expression of beta-amyloid peptide in glial cells following ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. PMID: 12417398

  • By use of immunocytochemistry Abeta fibers were identified within plaques, around vessels and in association with cell membranes. PMID: 11191714

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • Re-examination of ex-boxers' brains using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to amyloid beta-protein and tau protein. PMID: 1759560

  • Immunohistochemical investigation of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in the brain of aged cats. PMID: 15944921

  • Immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid precursor protein in the canine brain and non-neuronal epithelial tissues. PMID: 15523919

  • Immunohistochemical localization of amyloid beta-protein with amino-terminal aspartate in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 10095028

  • P3 beta-amyloid peptide has a unique and potentially pathogenic immunohistochemical profile in Alzheimer's disease brain. PMID: 8701997

  • Atypical amyloid (A beta) deposition in the cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease: an immunohistochemical study using end-specific A beta monoclonal antibodies. PMID: 8781665

  • Amyloid beta protein in rat soleus muscle in chloroquine-induced myopathy using end-specific antibodies for A beta 40 and A beta 42: immunohistochemical evidence for amyloid beta protein. PMID: 8787835

  • Immunohistochemical evidence for amyloid beta in rat soleus muscle in chloroquine-induced myopathy. PMID: 7715800

  • Immunohistochemical localization of amyloid beta-protein deposits in extracerebral tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 8373132

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of cerebrovascular amyloid in 46 autopsied cases using antibodies to beta protein and cystatin C. PMID: 2408196

  • Morphology and distribution of plaque and related deposits in the brains of Alzheimer's disease and control cases. An immunohistochemical study using amyloid beta-protein antibody. PMID: 2642985

  • we utilized an immunohistochemical approach to determine if Abeta or its precursor protein is expressed in epithelial cells of the small intestine. PMID: 16962759

Immunoprecipitation (IP)

  • Here, we describe a method that employs immunoprecipitation combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine the pattern of C-terminally truncated Abeta peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PMID: 16602710

  • serum A beta(1-42) autoantibody levels (A beta(1-42)-AL) of 96 AD patients and 30 healthy elderly control subjects (HC) were assessed with a newly developed immunoprecipitation assay with radiolabeled A beta(1-42) peptide. PMID: 15820240

Western Blotting (WB)

  • Western blotting showed that the initial A beta species to accumulate in the putamen or mammillary body varied among individuals. PMID: 9600228