Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (beta-APP) Antibody Review





  • a membrane-bound protein ubiquitously expressed in a variety of types of cells. PMID: 11279603

  • a normal constituent of neurons, glial cells and cerebrospinal fluid, has several proposed functions (e.g., in neuronal growth and survival). PMID: 10708675

  • can reside at neuron and glial cell surfaces or undergo proteolytic processing into secreted fragments. PMID: 9390996

  • the source of the fibrillogenic amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) that accumulates in the brain of victims of Alzheimer's disease, is a multifunctional protein that is widely expressed in the nervous system. PMID: 9354812

Normal Expression

  • beta-amyloid precursor (APP) is localized in developing retinal Müller glial cells. PMID: 10617317, PMID: 10517698

  • Immunoreactivity to beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) was present in the inner plexiform, ganglion cell and optic fibre layers, as well as in blood vessels, at birth in normally developing rat retinas. PMID: 9106753

  • beta-APP is expressed in lacrimal glands and subsequently is secreted into tear fluid. PMID: 8977472

  • present results strongly suggest that supporting glial cells may be a primary source of APP or any related peptide, at least in adult healthy people. PMID: 7898775

  • one or more isoforms of full length beta-APPs are expressed at very early gestational ages in the developing human spinal cord. PMID: 8032873

  • All betaAPP isoforms were distributed evenly in neuronal cell bodies and their axons and dendrites. In situ hybridization histochemistry confirmed that all isoforms of betaAPP were expressed in neurons in normal control brains. PMID: 15558879

  • under normal conditions, the APP is found in small intracellular vesicles, some of which were characterized as lysosomes. PMID: 11967279

  • beta APP, but not beta/A4, is normally present in human glabrous (digital) skin. PMID: 7675321

  • In aged rat brain, amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) is accumulated in dendrites and cell bodies of Purkinje cells as full-length or truncated APP, because dendrites and cell bodies are positively stained by antibodies against both the amino- and carboxy-termini of APP. PMID: 8032926

Abnormal Expression

  • APP and beta-amyloid were expressed in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes. PMID: 17712316

  • In the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, beta amyloid protein is the major component of senile plaque. In ischemic stress, beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta amyloid peptide are reported to be upregulated. PMID: 11460917

  • Human beta-amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity was demonstrated in axonal swellings (spheroids) around periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) of neonates. PMID: 8534283

  • following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in astrocytes and microglia. PMID: 7790414

  • Immunoreactivity in beta-APP in brain was prominent in senile plaques, extraneuronal tangles, and neurons. Outside the brain, beta-APP staining was seen in neurons and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root, enteric and trigeminal ganglia, the adeno- and neurohypophysis, megakaryocytes, and adrenal gland in samples from patients with AD and those without AD. PMID: 1763893

  • beta APP expression and beta AP deposition generally colocalize, processing of beta APP may vary among closely interconnected anatomic regions. PMID: 1791966

  • increased immunoreactivity of beta-APP in neuronal perikarya of the anterior horn cells and in some proximal axonal swellings is an early change of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be a response of the increased synthesis of beta-APP resulting from neuronal damage, or the impairment of fast axonal transport. PMID: 10334483

  • AbetaPP was detected in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and adventitial cells. PMID: 10320740

  • In the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, beta amyloid protein is the major component of senile plaque. In ischemic stress, beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta amyloid peptide are reported to be upregulated. PMID: 11460917

  • APP expression follows neuronal death and is associated with astrocyte proliferation. PMID: 7773447

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Value

  • Immunohistochemical staining for beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) is a well-established marker of traumatic axonal injury in adults. PMID: 12866814

Review Articles

  • Regulation and expression of the Alzheimer's beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor in health, disease, and Down's syndrome. PMID: 8239320

  • The amyloid-beta precursor protein: integrating structure with biological function. PMID: 16252002



Flow Cytometry (FC)

  • Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein is expressed on the surface of immediately ex vivo brain cells: a flow cytometric study. PMID: 8933373

  • Using the anti-beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) monoclonal antibodies 4G8, 6E10 and 22C11 and flow cytometry, we report that human circulating peripheral blood monocytes display surface immunoreactivity for betaAPP. PMID: 10588572

Immuno-Electron Microscopy

  • Excitotoxicity-induced expression of amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in the hippocampus and cortex of rat brain. an electron-microscopy and biochemical study. PMID: 11770127

  • Immunohistochemical localization of beta-amyloid precursor protein sequences in Alzheimer and normal brain tissue by light and electron microscopy. PMID: 1640495

Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

  • Early detection of axonal injury after human head trauma using immunocytochemistry for beta-amyloid precursor protein. PMID: 8140894

  • Amyloid precursor proteins in the cerebellar cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients devoid of cerebellar beta-amyloid deposits: immunocytochemical study of five cases. PMID: 10651111

  • White matter alterations following thromboembolic stroke: a beta-amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemical study in rats. PMID: 9600599

  • Temporal and regional patterns of axonal damage following traumatic brain injury: a beta-amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemical study in rats. PMID: 9329457

  • Oligodendrocytes express different isoforms of beta-amyloid precursor protein in chemically defined cell culture conditions: in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical detection. PMID: 9379493

  • Beta-amyloid precursor protein localization in the Golgi apparatus in neurons and oligodendrocytes. An immunocytochemical structural and ultrastructural study in normal and axotomized neurons. PMID: 1331676

  • Immunocytochemical localization of the precursor protein for beta-amyloid in the rat central nervous system. PMID: 3152290

  • The expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and B-cell lymphoma protooncogene protein (Bcl-2) in retinal cells in the rat was studied using immunocytochemistry at different times after intraorbital optic nerve transection or vascular lesion. PMID: 8858004

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • An overview of inflicted head injury in infants and young children, with a review of beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. PMID: 16683890

  • Trials and tribulations of using beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry to evaluate traumatic brain injury in adults. PMID: 15542268

  • Beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of pediatric traumatic optic nerve injury. PMID: 15051219

  • Methotrexate-related nonnecrotizing multifocal axonopathy detected by beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. PMID: 11800653

  • Beta amyloid precursor protein and patterns of HIV p24 immunohistochemistry in different brain areas of AIDS patients. PMID: 11316993

  • Optic nerve damage in shaken baby syndrome: detection by beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. PMID: 10656735

  • Changes of beta-amyloid precursor protein after compression trauma to the spinal cord: an experimental study in the rat using immunohistochemistry. PMID: 7473801

  • Widespread axonal damage in the brain of drug abusers as evidenced by accumulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP): an immunohistochemical investigation. PMID: 16911734

  • Immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid precursor protein in the canine brain and non-neuronal epithelial tissues. PMID: 15523919

  • Diffuse axonal injury in infants with nonaccidental craniocerebral trauma: enhanced detection by beta-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining. PMID: 10050789

  • Accumulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin in axons after spinal cord trauma in humans: immunohistochemical observations on autopsy material. PMID: 8811125

  • Beta-amyloid precursor protein accumulates in axons around hematogenous metastases of the human brain: immunohistochemical observations. PMID: 8925600

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of alterations in the distribution of amyloid precursor proteins and beta-amyloid peptide after experimental brain injury in the rat. PMID: 8558237

  • Immunohistochemical localization of beta-amyloid precursor protein sequences in Alzheimer and normal brain tissue by light and electron microscopy. PMID: 1640495

  • Immunohistochemical evidence for the derivation of a peptide ligand from the amyloid beta-protein precursor of Alzheimer disease. PMID: 3282239

  • Expression and distribution of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid peptide in astroglial cells were examined immunohistochemically after 10-min cardiac arrest. PMID: 12480738

  • Immunohistochemical staining for beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) has been validated as a marker for axonal injury in adults surviving > or = 2 hours after white matter damage. PMID: 12638728

Western Blotting (WB)

  • Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to assess cerebral beta-APP expression in 14-day-old rat pups subjected to unilateral HII, and in 10 term human infants, who died between 12 h and 16 months after severe perinatal HII. PMID: 9821164

  • The beta-APP was identified and characterized by immunoblotting using antibodies specific for domains of the beta-APP. PMID: 8977472

  • Using Western blotting, we compared the levels of alpha-secretase cleaved sAPP, beta-secretase cleaved sAPP and total sAPP, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 13 sporadic AD patients and 13 healthy controls. PMID: 10653020