Synaptic (Synapse) Markers




Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands. A chemical synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell is called a neuromuscular junction.

Chemical synapses allow the neurons of the central nervous system to form interconnected neural circuits. They are thus crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They also provide the means through which the nervous system connects to and controls the other systems of the body.




  • a monoclonal postsynaptic marker for modulations of synaptic connectivity in the rat brain. PMID: 3392534

Brain spectrin

Chromogranin A/Chromogranin C

Con A-binding glycoprotein


  • is in the brain present on the external surface of neurones, especially in newly formed processes and in synapses. PMID: 6576115


GAP-43 (Growth-Associated Protein-43)

  • a molecular marker for synaptic reorganization. PMID: 8075819, PMID: 9042573

  • GAP43, in addition to development and regeneration, may play a significant role also in normal adult rats, especially in perivascular nerve terminals. PMID: 7691435

NCAM/N-CAM D2 (Neural cell adhesion molecule)


PSD95 (Post-Synaptic Density protein-95)

  • a post-synaptic marker. PMID: 15126032

  • present in all vertebrate species and appeared to be a general specific marker for postsynaptic densities (PSDs). PMID: 7086480

Secretogranin II


  • a family of four proteins that are the major peripheral proteins on the cytoplasmic face of synaptic vesicles. PMID: 7903586

  •  Synapsin I is a phosphoprotein localized to the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles and is one of the best characterized neuron-specific proteins. PMID: 8287627

  • synapsin I is a synapse-specific phosphoprotein present in all neurons. PMID: 2410596


  • marker for small synaptic vesicles. PMID: 1594095

  • synaptic vesicle proteins synaptin and synaptophysin/p38 were shown to be immunochemically identical. PMID: 2462508


  • Synaptobrevin-2 (VAMP-2), the major SNARE protein of synaptic vesicles, is required for fast calcium-triggered synaptic-vesicle exocytosis. PMID: 15475946  

  • represents a marker for early events in synaptogenesis. PMID: 8738414

  • a well-characterized membrane protein of small vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells. PMID: 2498078

Synaptogyrin (p29)

  • a synaptic vesicle protein that is uniformly distributed in the nervous system. PMID: 8557746

  • neuronal synaptogyrins are differentially expressed protein isoforms that may represent functionally distinct populations of synapses and/or synaptic vesicles. PMID: 14755516

  • synaptogyrin I and synaptophysin I perform redundant and essential functions in synaptic plasticity without being required for neurotransmitter release itself. PMID: 10595519


  • a pre-synaptic marker. PMID: 15126032

  • synaptic vesicle proteins synaptin and synaptophysin/p38 were shown to be immunochemically identical. PMID: 2462508

  • a marker protein for synapses during neuronal development. PMID: 8738414

  • Synaptophysin and synaptoporin are homologous proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle proteins. Despite their high degree of sequence similarity, they are differentially distributed in the brain. PMID: 8797152


  • a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, which belongs to the synaptophysin family. PMID: 12974474

  • differently expressed by subpopulations of mouse hippocampal neurons. PMID: 12271488

Synaptotagmin I


  • a synaptic protein implicated in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones. PMID: 1321498

SV2 (Synaptic vesicle protein 2)

Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2)