Cdc2 (Cell Division Cycle 2) Antibody Review





  • a catalytic subunit of a protein kinase complex, called the M-phase promoting factor, that induces entry into mitosis and is universal among eukaryotes. PMID: 2462672

  • The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells. PMID: 2541912

  • Cdc2 is the only cyclin-dependent kinase regulating the G(2)/M transition without redundancy and is required as a rate-limiting step in the cell cycle. PMID: 11455581

  • a key cell-cycle regulator, and the universal inducer of mitosis. PMID: 15013793, PMID: 1628647

  • involved in paired helical filament-tau formation, is thought as a candidate gene in AD. PMID: 17159347

  • CDC2 is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for AD. PMID: 16192727

  • The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID: 1639063

  • Transcription of the human cdc2 gene is cell cycle regulated and restricted to proliferating cells. Nuclear run-on assays show that cdc2 transcription is high in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle but low in G1. PMID: 1582409

Normal Expression

  • At the 8th cell cycle, most of the cdc2/cyclin B was localized in the cortical cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle, in the centrosomes and the nucleus at interphase and prometaphase, and in the spindles at metaphase and anaphase. Cdc2 was also localized in the chromatins at metaphase and anaphase. PMID: 16097011

  • We show that overexpression of the cyclin B1-CDC2 (cell division cycle 2 kinase) complex re-initiates cell division in adult cardiomyocytes. PMID: 15253691

  • two representative cell-cycle related proteins, cyclin B, and Cdc2, are present both in small and large oocytes, concentrating in the germinal vesicles before its breaking down. Cdc2 has been found in the cytoplasm of small oocytes and in the germinal vesicles of the large ones and then together with HSP70 on the mitotic apparatus of the dividing oocytes. PMID: 14550266

  • In normal lymphoid tissues, cyclin B1 and cdc2 were expressed predominantly in the germinal center with mean labeling indices of 13.9% and 28.3%, respectively. PMID: 12068134

  • In tissues where proliferation occurs, germinal centres in the tonsil, basal layers of tonsular epithelium and skin, cortex of the thymus, seminiferous tubules of the testis and epithelium of the colon, the anti-cdc2 antibodies gave positive nuclear staining as did the proliferation markers. The percentage of positive cells was, however, lower with the cdc2 antibodies. Given the role of the cdc2 gene at specific points of the cell cycle, these antibodies are potentially useful as markers of different phases of the cell cycle and may help to detect abnormalities in cell cycle control in disease. PMID: 8045523

  • Immunocytochemistry has been used to assess the distribution of the mitosis-associated protein kinase, cdc2, in mature neurons of rat brain. A robust signal is apparent in most, but not all neurons in cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus. The signal is concentrated in neuronal nuclei with lower levels of immunoreactivity in neuronal cytoplasm. PMID: 8513145

  • Immunohistochemistry showed that p34cdc2 was expressed not only in the neuronal precursors of the cerebellar external granule layer but also in the early differentiating granule neurons. PMID: 1715184

  • The mouse analog of yeast CDC2+ kinase was detected in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cultured mouse FM3A cells. PMID: 2241938

Abnormal Expression

  • Nuclear expression of cdc2 was detected in many retinoblastoma cells, including mitotic cells. The immunoreactivity in mitotic cells was located in the prophase, as well as metaphase. In contrast, anaphase cells did not show immunoreactivity. Double staining demonstrated the same localization of T187-phospho-p27 and cdc2 in mitotic cells. These results suggest that p27(KIP1) interacts with cdc2 in the M-phase of human retinoblastoma cells. PMID: 16465393

  • We recently demonstrated that cdc2 expression is associated with the biological aggressiveness of malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. PMID: 15015605

  • CDC2 and CDK2 are activated in HCC in over 70% and 80% of the cases, respectively, but have little correlation with clinical parameters and PCNA expression. PMID: 12100577

  • The cyclin B1 and cdc2 contents were dramatically elevated in biopsies of DU145 tumor regressing upon 9NC-treatment. In vitro, 9NC-induced apoptosis of DU145 cells was associated with up-regulation of expression and nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2. PMID: 11205291

  • The protein expression of cyclin (D1, D3, E, and A) and CDKs (CDK4, CDK2, and cdc2) was higher in primary colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent normal tissue. PMID: 10091728

  • Immunohistochemical study revealed that cdk2/cdc2 was overexpressed in a subsets of adenoma (14/50; 28.0%) but this overexpression was much more obvious in focal carcinoma (13/15; 86.7%). Inhibition of cdk2/cdc2 may be a useful strategy against colon cancer. PMID: 9664116

  • over-expression of CDC2, which is due to the gene amplification in some cases, might play a role in altered growth of leukaemic cells. PMID: 7786802

  • A robust but transient increase in Cdc2 expression was found in cultured Schwann cells prepared from the sciatic nerve in rats that had undergone crush injury for 7 days. PMID: 17200138

  • Cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) mRNA and protein levels were highly increased in the injured sciatic nerves 3 and 7 d after injury, and decreased to basal levels 14 d later. PMID: 16826023


  • CDC2 can mediate the effects of IGF-II on ovarian P4 secretion but not on other hormones. PMID: 16029936

  • Our in vivo results provide strong evidence that Cdc2 may compensate the loss of Cdk2 function. PMID: 16007079

  • The Cdc2-cyclin B kinase has a central role in regulating the onset of M phase. PMID: 14551249

  • phosphorylation of nucleolin by Cdc2 kinase is a critical event and the point of convergence of two distinct pathways, mitosis and neurodegeneration. PMID: 11445251

  • Cdk10 is a Cdc2-related kinase that may play a role in regulating the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID: 11313931

  • the activation of cdc2/cyclin B1 is initiated in the cytoplasm and that full activation of the translocated pool occurs in the nucleus. PMID: 10854050

  • a cyclin B-Cdc2-dependent protein kinase cascade is involved in inducing chromosome condensation and the phosphorylation of chromosomal histone H1. PMID: 9923076

  • cdc2 expression is a critical factor in the regulation of meristem activity and establishment of proliferative competence. PMID: 1502145

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Value

  • Immunohistochemical detection of cdc2 and Ki67 may be a useful and simple method in evaluating the prognosis of mantle cell lymphoma patients. PMID: 15933757

  • These findings suggest a role for CDC2/CDK1 in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis, both as a potential histopathologic marker of dysplasia and a putative treatment target. PMID: 15725809

  • the cdc2 and G2 cyclins play an important role in the progression of thyroid malignant lymphoma. PMID: 14533937

  • cyclin B1 and cdc2 appeared to be involved in the genesis or progression of malignant lymphoma and cdc2 can be a useful marker for response to chemotherapy. PMID: 12068134

Review Articles



Immunoblotting (IB)

  • Immunoblot analysis showed the presence of p34cdc2 in the immunoprecipitates with anti-RB monoclonal antibody. PMID: 1594240

  • Analysis of Cdc2 and Cyclin D1 Expression in Breast Cancer by Immunoblotting. PMID: 11091571

Immunofluorescence (IF)

  • Antibodies to PSTAIRE and to specific C-terminal peptides of cdc2a, were used in immunofluorescence, protein blotting and immunogold electron microscopy to demonstrate that antigen is located on the cortical microtubules of carrot, tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis cells. PMID: 11707288

  • Indirect immunofluorescence using a CDC2 affinity-purified antibody showed that this protein is localised exclusively in the cytoplasm with a higher concentration perinuclearly. PMID: 2663576

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

  • COX-2, CDX2, and CDC2 immunohistochemical assessment for dysplasia-carcinoma progression in Barrett's esophagus. PMID: 17307036

  • Immunohistochemical examinations were carried out with immunoperoxidase method. Antigens were labeled with NCL-CYCLIN E or NCL-p34 cdc2 monoclonal antibodies (Novocastra, UK). PMID: 16739882

  • In this study, we have examined the subcellular localisation of Cdc2, cyclin B and p21(WAF1/CIP1) by immunohistochemistry in a well characterised series of primary breast cancers. PMID: 11720835

  • The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdc2), cyclin A and cyclin B1 was immunohistochemically studied in 101 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). cdc2 overexpression was directly related to advanced stage, portal invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, poor differentiation, high alpha-fetoprotein level, large size, high Ki-67 labeling index and poor prognosis. PMID: 10895070

  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cdc2, and cyclin B1 were examined in paraffin embedded tissue by immunohistochemistry. PMID: 10623670

  • Using well-characterized polyclonal antibodies which recognize the C termini of cdc2 kinase and cdk4, we examined by immunohistochemistry brain tissues from patients with non-neurological conditions, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral infarction. PMID: 10325446

  • By immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting, we detected a Cdc2-related kinase in human brains. PMID: 7856730

Western Blot (WB)

  • we evaluated the functional activities of G2 molecules assays, that included; western blotting for cyclin B1, cdc2 and phospho-cdc2 (Y15 and T161), immunoprecipitation for cdc2, a nuclear extraction fractional assay, and RT-PCR for cyclin B1. PMID: 16458113

  • In order to determine the function and possible relationship between Cdc2 and P(70)S6K, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to study the expression and kinase activity of Cdc2 and P(70)S6K in male mouse germ cells. PMID: 16329156

  • To investigate whether the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis is actually a temperature dependent event, in situ hybridization, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to study the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in normal and cryptorchid testis. PMID: 11191351

  • Western blot analysis revealed that colorectal cancer expressed higher levels of cdk2 and cdc2 than did normal mucosa and that the ratio of the hyperphosphorylated form of pRB was higher in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies showed that cdk2/cdc2 was expressed exclusively in the cancer cells positive for pRB. PMID: 7779716